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Australia Decoded
'A-3'


Adelaide blue-tongued lizard

Adelaide blue-tongued lizard (Tiliqua adelaidensis)


ACA Act—(see: Aboriginal Councils and Associations Act, 1976 (Cth)).

AcaciaAcacia—belongs to the family Mimosaceae. There are some 1500 species of Acacia found throughout the world, 954 of which are currently recognised as occurring in Australia. The plants are endemic in all Australian states—from coastal zones to mountains to the dry inland. The individual flowers are very small but are arranged into rod-like or globular heads of a large number of flowers. The colour is almost invariably in the range between white and bright yellow. Australian Acacias are generally small to large shrubs but there are a few which become large trees. Collectively the Australian species are known as "wattles" and one of them, Acacia pycnantha, is the national floral emblem. Wattles are usually the first plants to appear after a bushfire, as their seeds require very high temperatures for germination. Characterised by quick growth, early flowering and a short lifespan, they foster the slower-growing plants under their canopy, then concede their space as the longer-lived plants create a stable habitat for a diverse understorey. Acacias were amongst the first flowering plants (angiosperms) to develop, as the Australian continent became dryer. A naturally regenerative genus, their branches were commonly used in the wattle-and-daub dwellings built by early European setters of Australia. The seeds from some specific Acacia species provide a valuable food source. Mostly the seeds are ground into a flour and cooked like damper, although some are eaten raw or made into a porridge. The gum from some species is also edible. Various extracts from the bark and the leaves or phyllodes have been and continue to be used by Aborigines for a wide variety of medicinal purposes, such as relieving toothache or colds or applying to wounds and burns. Green, leafy branches of some species may be used to 'smoke' someone who is suffering from a general sickness. The wood of various species has been used to make clubs, spears, boomerangs and shields. Some species, such as Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood), are used to make fine furniture. Tannin has been extracted from the bark of a number of species for use in tanning, including Acacia dealbata (silver wattle), A. mearnsii (black wattle) and A. pycnantha (golden wattle).

Acacia Plateau—pockets of World Heritage rainforest hug steep slopes below Acacia Plateau and Mount Wilson, Northern Tablelands, New South Wales.

acacia translucensacacia translucensAcacia translucens, commonly known as poverty bush, is a shrub that grows on arid spinifex plains in northern Australia. It is distributed throughout the inland Pilbara and Kimberley regions of Western Australia, and east into the Victoria River region of the Northern Territory. Poverty bush is a low, spreading shrub with a flat top. It grows up to 1m high and 1.5m wide. As with many arid shrubland Acacia species, it has phyllodes instead of leaves. Its flowers are yellow, and held in spherical clusters about 5mm in diameter. The seed pods are held erect above the foliage, instead of hanging down, as with most Acacias. The pods can be up to 9cm long.

academy award—(try for an...) (Australian Rules football) a free kick.

ACC—(see: Aboriginal Coordinating Council).

ACCA—(see: Australian Court of Conciliation and Arbitration).

acca—an academic: someone with a tertiary degree.

acca-dacca—the band AC/DC.

Accord—(see: Prices and Incomes Accord).

accumulator—a bet placed on a sequence of events, the winnings and stake from each being placed on the next.

ace—1. Royal Flying Corps slang for a pilot who had shot down five or more enemy aircraft. 2. anything excellent.

ace it up—to slow down or to restrain something.

ace up (one's) sleeve—something effective kept in reserve.

acquire—to steal; obtain without payment.

acre—buttocks; bum; anus.

ACT—(see: Australian National Territory).

act—display of bad temper: e.g., There's no need to bung on an act!

Act of Parliament—a bill that has passed three readings in each House of Parliament, received Royal Assent and become law. An Act comes into force either on a specified date, on a day or days to be appointed by proclamation, or, where no date is specified, 28 days after it receives assent.

act the angora—behave in a foolish manner.

action stations!—an order to get ready for a particular activity.

ACTN—(see: Australian Council of National Trusts).

ACTU—(see: Australian Council of Trade Unions).

Adam's ale—water.

ADC—(see: Aboriginal Development Corporation).

ADCQ—(see: Anti-Discrimination Commission).

AdelaideAdelaide—one of Australia's best-planned cities and the capital city of South Australia, it was named after the consort of William IV. Known as the City of Churches, the colony was established by free settlers drawn by the promise, not only of land, but also of civil and religious liberty. These early colonists built with stone, constructing a solid, dignified city. By the early 1840s the town had about 30 satellite villages, including the German settlements where the state's wine industry was founded. Today, Adelaide is considered to be one of Australia's best-planned cities. Situated on the banks of the Torrens River, between the Mount Lofty Ranges and the sea, the city is surrounded by spacious parklands, all within walking distances of the city centre. There are numerous beaches along the coast, which are easily accessible. Rundle street is the main centre of cafe society, and probably the finest in Australia. Other amenities include plenty of theatres, nightclubs and art galleries. Suburban shopping centres are strategically placed and parking is rarely a problem. The city annually hosts both a wine festival and the Adelaide Festival of Arts.

Adelaide blue-tongued lizardTiliqua adelaidensis, a grey, grey-brown or orange-brown reptile that grows to a total length of less than 20cm. It has pale flanks, body, limbs and tail with scattered darker spots and blotches mixed with paler scales, a white/cream belly, scales with pale brown margins, and short limbs. On average, adult males have wider heads but are shorter than females. It is the smallest of the genus Tiliqua. The Adelaide blue-tongue lizard was rediscovered near Burra in South Australia in 1992, before which time the species was considered extinct. Currently it is known from 31 sites, severely fragmented, , in a range extending from Peterborough in the north, to Kapunda in the south and to the South Hummocks in the west (north of Port Wakefield). Population density is highly variable at the sites, and ranges from 15-200 individuals per hectare, and the total population size is unknown. The relative abundance of Adelaide blue-tongue lizards in European collections in the 19th century suggests that the species was formerly more common, and has undergone a marked decrease in distribution during the 20th century. Pre-1992 specimens of the species were collected in chenopod and mallee scrublands with compacting or crusty sandy soils associated with hollow mallee lignotubers, low stump hollows, near surface limestone sheets, and large slab floaters. The species was thought to burrow into moisture pockets in limestone sheeting, under outcroppings and slabs, between mallee lignotubers and sheeting, and into insect-hollowed lignotubers and trunks. The region in which Adelaide blue-tongue lizards occur has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The species uses spider burrows approximately 20mm in diameter within the spaces between tussocks in grasslands (or grassy woodlands). The lizards use the narrow, vertical spider burrows for shelter during the day, retreat sites for hiding, ambush sites for hunting passing prey, basking sites for thermoregulation, and birthing sites. Newly born young have been observed between January to late March, with the majority of births occurring in February. Young then disperse soon after birth (approximately 1-12 weeks) to find burrows of their own. Males can reproduce from approximately one year of age; females are sexually mature between 1-2 years of age. Litter sizes range from one to four, and older females (longer than 10cm) are known to produce larger litters. Juvenile mortality is high, with less than 10% of juveniles surviving until adulthood. The Adelaide blue-tongue lizard is an omnivorous species that mainly feeds on medium-sized arthropods. Whilst the species is largely an opportunistic predator of mainly arthropod prey, vegetative material plays an important part of the diet as summer progresses. The lizard is a largely sedentary species, with most adults in a three-year study moving no greater than 20m from their burrows. The current conservation status of Tiliqua adelaidensis, under Australian and State Government legislation, and under international convention, is as follows: National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. South Australia: Listed as Endangered under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. International: Listed as Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2010). Also known as pygmy blue-tongue lizard.

Adelaide Festival of Arts—the biennial affair is acknowledged as one of the world's great arts festivals, with a tradition of innovation since 1960. Adelaide is planned on a unique system of open parklands and squares and it contains many performing arts venues and galleries within walking distance. Add to this a program of art, music, theatre, opera, dance, exhibitions, Adelaide Writer's Week (the largest literary festival in the world, and it's free), master classes, forums, open air events and a vibrant Fringe and you have quite an experience for travellers. The Adelaide Festival is a chance for everyone to leave ordinary life behind and celebrate, discuss, renew, and party. Some of the world's best artists have contributed to the Adelaide Festival of Arts including: Pina Bausch, Peter Greenaway, Frida Kahlo, Steve Berkhoff, Les Ballets C de la B Batsheva Dance, Netherlands Opera, Meryl Tankard, DV8, Jordi Savall, Vikram Seth, Frankfurt Ballet, Cloud Gate Dance Theatre, The Whirling Dervishes, Hotel Pro Forma, Jim Sharman, Barrie Kosky and Robyn Archer. Adelaide's Festival Centre, overlooking the Torrens River, comprises a 2000-seat concert theatre, a 650-seat drama theatre and an outdoor amphitheatre for 12,000.

Adelaide Fold Belt—formed during the Early Palaeozoic by deformation of sediments and volcanics of Late Proterozoic (Adelaidean) to Cambrian age. These rocks accumulated within, or on the edge of the Proterozoic Australian Craton in continental (including glacial) to shelf-marine environments. This craton, itself forming the consolidated basement, crops out as inliers (the Broken Hill and Euriowie Blocks) within the Adelaide Fold Belt. These inliers consist of strongly deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks of mid-Proterozoic age, over 1800 million years old. They contain the famous silver and lead deposits at Broken Hill. Located in New South Wales.

Adelaide HillsAdelaide Hills—delineate the city on the west, and continue rolling out for some 30km, providing Adelaide with not only a huge English-landscape picnic ground, but a larder for fruits, vegetables, cheeses, wines, even smoked salmon. As well as the 20 or so wineries, the hills are a haven for craftspeople: spend a day browsing through galleries and craft shops in quaint villages. Take in the breathtaking view from the Scenic Hotel at Norton Summit. Visit enchanting gardens which are beautiful at any time of the year. Go bushwalking, perhaps along the famous Heysen Trail. Don't forget to visit Cleland Conservation Park to pat a koala or feed a kangaroo. Warrawong Sanctuary gives you the chance to greet rare and endangered native wildlife. Stroll down the main street of Hahndorf, Australia's oldest German town.

Adelaide Plains—a region north of Adelaide that produces predominantly commercial-grade grapes. Large volumes of mass market-quality Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon are produced, and to a lesser extent Grenache, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Semillon. Much of the fruit is processed in the nearby Barossa Valley, where it is blended with fruit from other regions. Located a short drive from the Barossa Valley in South Australia.

Adelaide RiverAdelaide River—during World War II, the township was a major military centre for 80,000 Australian and US troops. The War Cemetery located just north of the town is the final resting place of 432 servicemen and 63 civilians, all of whom were killed during Japanese bombing raids. During wartime, more than 100,000 US servicemen were stationed in the area, and there were 60 airfields and 35 hospitals on the Stuart Highway between Daly Waters and Darwin.

Adelaide rosellaPlatycercus elegans adelaidaea, a subspecies of the crimson rosella. Distinguished by a bright orange-red head and breast, and a blue patch on its cheeks. The feathers on its back are black with orange edges. The wings are mainly blue with darker tips. Its rump is orange and the tail is blue. Confined to Mount Lofty and the southern Flinders Ranges in South Australia, it can be seen in areas where there are native trees.

Adelaide University—(see: University of Adelaide).

ADFA—Australian Defence Force Academy.

adjigoDioscorea hastifolia, the native yam of near-coastal SW Western Australia. It is a perennial, tuberous climber, to 3m high. Flowers yellow, Apr–Jul. Found in grey sand, granitic & basaltic soils, laterite. There are numerous 'native yams' in Australia, changing with the territory. (from a native Australian language)

Adjnamathanha—alternate spelling of Adnyamathanha.

AD(JR) Act—Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act, 1977 (Cth), legislation relating to the review of certain administrative decisions made under the Commonwealth government, on questions of law. Pursuant to section 6 of the AD(JR) Act, the Federal Court of Australia has jurisdiction to review administrative decisions on a wide number of specified grounds. This Act was brought into force two years after the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act, which provides for a review on the merits of a case.

adjudicate—to determine, in a judicial manner, an issue or dispute.

Administrative Appeals Tribunal—(AAT) the general review tribunal at the Commonwealth level. The AAT is a statutory body forming part of the framework of administrative law introduced by Federal Parliament since 1975. This non-judicial mechanism for the review of administrative decisions was established under the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975 (AD(JR)). Decisions taken under review include those made by ministers and officials, authorities and other tribunals. The AAT can only review a decision if an Act, regulation or other legislative instrument provides specifically that the decision is subject to review by the tribunal, and jurisdiction is generally conferred by the enactment under which the original decision was made. The tribunal's jurisdiction is contained in numerous Acts, covering issues as to social security pensions or benefits, veteran pensions, Commonwealth workers' compensation, environment, taxation, criminal deportation, student assistance and many other Commonwealth matters. Appeals on questions of law from decisions of the tribunal are heard by the Federal Court of Australia. As of May 2005, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Amendment Act 2005 introduced a range of changes to the way in which the tribunal may deal with applications for review.

Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975—(AAT Act) the centrepiece of reforms to Australian administrative law in the 1970s, providing for a review of Commonwealth administrative decisions. By this Act, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal is invested with the jurisdiction to review decisions made under more than 400 separate Acts and legislative instruments. Notable examples include Commonwealth employees' compensation, social security, taxation, veterans' entitlements, bankruptcy, civil aviation, corporate law, customs, freedom of information, immigration and citizenship, industry assistance and security assessments undertaken by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. The Act also provides for a right of appeal from the tribunal to the Federal Court of Australia, on questions of law. The AAT Act of 1975, along with a number of other Acts, was amended by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Amendment Act 2005.

Administrative Appeals Tribunal Amendment Act 2005 (Cth)—(AAT Act) aims to improve operations of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal without fundamental change to its purpose, structure or function of the tribunal. The Act addresses concerns that the dispute resolution process at the federal level gave rise to undue delays, high costs and unfairness in litigation. A number of the amendments are based on recommendations from an ALRC Report, including: allowing the AAT president to authorise conference registrars to issue directions as to the procedure to be followed at, or in connection with, the hearing of a proceeding before the hearing has commenced; imposing an obligation on agency decision-makers to assist the tribunal to reach its decision; allowing the AAT president to authorise members to give a party leave to inspect a document produced under summons (previously done only by a presidential or senior member). The Administrative Appeals Tribunal Bill was passed by Parliament in March 2005, and the majority of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Amendment Act 2005 commenced operation in May 2005.

Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977— (ADJR Act) legislation designed to codify the grounds, under common law, for initiating judicial review of administrators' decisions at the federal level. The Act also simplifies the procedure for gaining review, and outlines the procedures for reviewing an administrative decision or the failure to make a decision, and the imposition of a condition or requirement. A person aggrieved by a decision to which the Act applies may apply to the Federal Court or Federal Magistrates Court for a review. On review, if a court finds that a decision has been made unlawfully, the powers of the court will generally be confined to setting the decision aside and remitting the matter to the decision-maker for reconsideration according to law. Pursuant to section 6 of the ADJR Act, the Federal Court of Australia has jurisdiction to review administrative decisions on a wide number of specified grounds relating to the legality, rather than the merits, of the decision. This Act was brought into force two years after the Administrative Appeals Act, which provided for a review on the merits of a case.

administrative law—rules governing the decision-making processes used by public officials. Administrative law is within the jurisdiction of the Federal Court. Many cases arise under the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977. This Act provides for judicial review of most administrative decisions made under Commonwealth enactments on grounds relating to the legality, rather than the merits, of the decision. Many cases also arise under the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975, which provides for a review on the merits by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal of many Commonwealth administrative decisions, and which also provides for a right of appeal from the tribunal to the court on questions of law.

administrative review—the review of processes, powers and decisions of government bodies, usually with the review body making the decision afresh. To be contrasted with judicial review

Administrative Review Council—(ARC) a statutory advisory body responsible for overseeing and monitoring the Australian system of administrative review. The ARC provides advice to the Attorney-General on strategic and operational matters relating to that system, in the form of reports and letters of advice. The ARC was established under the Administration Appeals Tribunal Act as an amalgamation of the AAT, the Migration Review Tribunal (MRT), Refugee Review Tribunal (RRT) and the Social Security Appeals Tribunal (SSAT).

Admiralty—the office of lord-high-admiral, whether discharged by one single person, or by joint-commissioners, called Lords of the Admiralty. In general the British Crown appoints five or seven commissioners. All maritime affairs are entrusted to their jurisdiction. They govern and direct the whole British Royal Navy, with powers decisive in all marine cases.

Admiralty House—the Sydney residence of the Governor-General, it has a long and and interesting history dating back to the early days of the convict settlement at Port Jackson. The First Fleet had only arrived in January of 1788, and here, a few years later, in 1794, we find the Lieutenant Governor Francis Grose, making the first grant of land, which included the site for the future Admiralty House, to Samuel Lightfoot, a former convict who had arrived in the First Fleet, but had served his sentence which had now expired. Situated on Kirribilli Point, it commands one of the best views of one of the world’s greatest seascapes, Sydney Harbour.

Adnyamatana—alternate spelling of Adnyamathanha.

Adnyamathanha manAdnyamathanha—an Aboriginal people of the northern Flinders Ranges, WA, also known as the Hill People. Their presence in the hills of South Australia stretches back for tens of thousands of years. Ochre-based paintings and rock etchings at numerous sites record everything from ancient Dreamtime stories (Yura Muda) to directions for the use of trade routes. The Yura Muda is passed on orally from generation to generation in the form of Creation stories that are frequently depicted in the tribe's rock art. Sharing a common identity based on the Yura Muda, all understanding of their world is derived from the land and the animals and plants that inhabit it. The name Adnyamathanha, meaning 'hills' or 'rock people', is now used to describe the Kuyani, Wailpi, Yadliaura, Pilatapa and Pangkala, the traditional groups in the Flinders Ranges.

ADR—(see: alternative dispute resolution).

Advance Australia—a patriotic slogan used primarily in advertising campaigns promoting the sale of Australian-made goods; taken from the national anthem (Advance Australia Fair).

Advance Australia Fair—was composed by Glasgow-born Peter Dodds McCormick (1834?-1916). The first public performance is thought to have been given in Sydney on November 30th (St Andrew's Day), 1878 at the St Andrew's Day concert of the Highland Society. The copyright on Advance Australia Fair ended in 1966. The Australian Labor Party policy for the 1972 elections included finding an alternative to God Save the Queen. The ALP won office in that election, and the Whitlam government (1972-75) announced in the Prime Minister's 1973 Australia Day address that a competition would be held under the auspices of the Australia Council for the Arts to find a new Australian national anthem. Although a large number of submissions were received (2,500 lyric and 1,400 instrumental entries), none were considered acceptable. The judges recommended that one of three existing Australian songs—Advance Australia Fair, Banjo Patterson's Waltzing Matilda or Carl Linger's Song of Australia—be selected. On April 8th, 1974, opinion polls were held by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and the government announced that henceforth Advance Australia Fair was to be Australia's anthem, but with God Save The Queen to be played when (British) royalty was present. In January 1976, the Fraser (Liberal) government modified the rules governing the national anthem. Advance Australia Fair was to be used without words on non-regal occasions, and God save the Queen was to be used on all royal, vice-regal, defence, and loyal toast occasions.

Adventure BayAdventure Bay—(hist.) the main bay of Tasmania’s Bruny Island. Abel Tasman made the first European sighting in 1642, when exploring the great South Land. Due to gale-force winds, he was unable to make a landing, but merely charted the area. This chart was utilised by Captain Tobias Furneaux when his boat, the HMS Adventure, became separated from Captain Cook’s HMS Resolution. Following Tasman’s chart, Furneaux found the bay and named it Adventure, before replenishing his supplies and sailing on to New Zealand. Captain Cook landed at Adventure Bay in 1777 in the Resolution, with William Bligh as sailing master. Bligh revisited the site in 1788 as a captain, and together with the botanist Nelson, planted a number of fruit trees brought from the Cape of Good Hope.

adventure playground—a playground where children are provided with functional materials for climbing on, building with, etc.

adversarial—the procedure used in trials in common law countries. The hearing is a contest between the parties of the dispute. The judge acts as a referee, determines what the relevant law is, and ensures that the proper procedural rules are followed. This system is in contrast to the inquisitorial system used in civil law countries (e.g., many European countries). All Australian courts operate on the adversarial system.

advert—advertisement.

advocate—the person presenting a case to a court or tribunal on behalf of one of the parties involved.

aerial ping-pong—Australian Rules football.

aerodrome—an airfield equipped with control tower and hangers as well as accommodations for passengers and cargo.

aeromedical support—medical services provided via aeroplane. The Australian Aerial Medical Service was formed in 1928, based at Cloncurry, Qld. Qantas contracted to provide aircraft and staff, with a Sydney surgeon providing the medical expertise. In 1942 the service became the Flying Doctor Service, adding a Royal Charter in 1954, by which it operated under Trans Australia Airlines (TAA).

aeroplane—British spelling of airplane.

AEST—Australian Eastern Standard Time.

AFC—(hist.) the Australian Flying Corps, founded in 1914; contributed pilots and aircraft to the Mesopotamian Front, Palestine and the Western Front. About 60 aircraft were lost over France during the war.

affirmative action—positive action taken to create a situation which promotes and assists elements of equal opportunity. This can mean removing barriers to equal opportunity in the workplace, such as training women so that they are eligible for a promotion.

Afghan camel trainsAfghan camel trains—a crucial life-support system to outback communities in the mid-nineteenth century. Afghan camelmen initially played a critical role in opening up the vast Australian outback to Europeans. The first cameleers came from Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Turkish empire. Their skills and labour in hot, dry, arid conditions made possible a number of key projects, including: the Overland Telegraph Line between Adelaide and Darwin, the Queensland Border Fence, the Transcontinental Railway Line between Port Augusta, South Australia and Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, and the Rabbit Proof Fence and Canning Stock Route in Western Australia. Cameleers were also vital to the early wool and mining industries.

Afghan cameleers/camelmen—in 1866 Samuel Stuckey went to Karachi and brought out more than a hundred camels and, as nobody knew how to handle the beasts, 31 camelmen as well. Although these and the men who followed, were from different ethnic groups and vastly different places, they were collectively known as 'Afghans'. In time, Afghan camel trains came to provide almost all goods and services to a territory stretching from South Australia to the Northern Territory. Maree, with its high concentration of Afghans, was soon referred to as Little Asia. It also became the centre for inland transport, with camel strings leaving regularly for the Birdsville, Oodnadatta and Strzelecki tracks, Broken Hill, the Northern Territory and the Western Australian gold fields. Many of these Afghans did extremely well in their chosen business but they also suffered from racial prejudice as a result of their religion, culture or the economic competition they provided for a declining number of jobs. Most Afghans who came to Australia were single or had left their wives behind as they had expected to return wealthy in the not-too-distant future. Many remained single but others married Aboriginal women; very few married white women. A lasting legacy of the Afghans are the date palms, which they planted wherever they went—and the 'Ghan, which was named after them.

Afghan ExpressAfghan Express—a nostalgic, steam-driven train service, introduced in 2000. Uses distinctive timber-bodied carriages built in the late 1920s for the old, narrow-gauge Ghan train service. The Afghan Express is the name railwaymen gave to the passenger train that ran from Terowie to Oodnadatta, through Quorn, in 1923. When an Afghan passenger alighted at Quorn to recite his evening prayers, the train was dubbed the Afghan Express by local railwaymen. In time, this was abbreviated to The Ghan. This service was later extended to Alice Springs in 1926. When The Ghan first departed Adelaide for Alice Springs, it was always intended that it would one day travel through to Darwin. More than 70-odd years on, that dream has become reality. The Ghan now travels 2,979km from Adelaide to Darwin on this transcontinental journey through the Red Centre of Australia.

Afghan Town—wherever the Afghan cameleers settled, they lived in a separate part of town. Consequently, many inland towns had three distinct sections, one for the Europeans, one for the Aborigines and a third section for the Afghans. Their areas became known as Afghan or Ghan Town. In these communities the Afghans continued to live as they had always done, following the Muslim religion and customs. There was contact between the Aboriginal and Afghan groups, but almost no contact between the Europeans and these two other groups. Examples of this social division are well illustrated in Farina and Maree, where even the cemeteries are separate for the three groups. The Afghanis often suffered from racial prejudice as a result of their religion, culture or the economic competition they provided for a declining number of jobs.

AFI—Australian Film Industry. The AFI Award is the Australian equivalent of the Oscar.

AFPC—(see: Australian Fair Pay Commission).

after darks—(rhyming slang) sharks.

after-damp—choking gas left after an explosion of firedamp in a mine.

agates—testicles.

agathisAgathis—a genus of conifers commonly referred to as kauri pines. Species of the genus had elliptical, sclerophyllous leaves and bud scales at the base of each shoot, which represented a year's growth. The cones of this genus were large and round. Agathis jurassica was a common species of the genus during the Jurassic, though there were others. As Australia became drier, Agathis retreated. Today, kauri pines are growing wild in confined remnant rainforests. There are approximately 21 species of Agathis today, and it is no longer a dominant species within the landscape.

Agathis jurassica—an extinct tree of the of the Araucariaceae family. Agathis jurassica was a common species of the genus Agathis, during the Jurassic. It is known only from fossil specimens dating back fifty million years. Its closest living relative is the relict Wollemi pine.

aggro—1. aggravated; deeply annoyed. 2.aggressive; in the mood for trouble-making: e.g., Jim's a beaut bloke sober, but he gets aggro whenever he drinks too much.

aggy pipe—agricultural pipe used for drainage and landscaping.

agile antechinusAntechinus agilis, a small marsupial carnivore, the agile antechinus is greyish chocolate brown but paler brown below and on its tail. Their climbing skills are quick, short and fast. Antechinus agilis nests communally in tree hollows; these nests are important points for social contact between males and females in the mating season. In response to elevated relatedness among potential mates in fragmented habitat, A. agilis significantly avoided sharing nests with opposite-sex relatives in large fragment sites (but not in small ones, possibly due to limited nest locations and small population sizes). Because opposite-sex individuals shared nests randomly with respect to relatedness in unfragmented habitat, we interpreted the phenomenon in fragmented habitat as a precursor to inbreeding avoidance via mate choice. Despite evidence that female A. agilis at high inbreeding risk selected relatively unrelated mates, there was no overall increased avoidance of related mates by females in fragmented habitats compared to unfragmented habitats. The agile antechinus lives along the coastal plains in wet or moist forest and woodland.

agile wallabyagile wallabyMacropus agilis, one of the most common members of the kangaroo family found in the Wet Tropics of Australia. This large wallaby has adapted so successfully to agricultural areas that they are widely considered as a native pest. Feeding mainly on native grasses, they will often dig into the soil to obtain their roots. For this destructive behaviour, they are frequently shot or poisoned by farmers. These shy creatures favour a life of hiding in the tall sugar cane fields, where many die every year in the cane fires at harvesting time. Agile wallabies also inhabit open forests and adjacent grasslands near rivers and streams in coastal areas of Australia, and in the southern and eastern lowlands of New Guinea.

agony aunt—a person (especially a woman) who answers letters in an agony column.

agony column—a column in a newspaper or magazine offering advice to persons who write in.

Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Danger of Extinction and Their Environment—Tokyo, 6 February 1974. Entry into force: 30 April 1981. Provides for limited usage (medical, scientific...) under the general umbrella of protection for birds that migrate between Japan and Australia. The two Governments also are to exchange data and publications regarding research on migratory birds and birds in danger of extinction. Each Government shall endeavour to establish sanctuaries and other facilities for the management and protection of migratory birds and birds in danger of extinction and also of their environment.

Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements—(ATNS) an ARC-linkage project examining treaty and agreement-making with Indigenous Australians, including the nature of the cultural, social and legal rights encompassed by past, present and potential agreements and treaties. The ATNS is an online gateway which links current information, historical detail and published material relating to agreements made between indigenous people and others, both in Australia and overseas. The ATNS database is designed for the use of indigenous and other community organisations, researchers, government and industry bodies.

Agriculture Protection Board—safeguards Western Australia's rural industries and natural resources. It is a statutory body that is allocated funds to enable it to fulfil its statutory obligations, and is responsible to the Minister for Primary Industry. The charter of APB is to safeguard rural industries and natural and community resources from the harmful effects of certain plants, plant diseases and animal pests. The APB also serves as the industry partnership group for the Agriculture Protection Program (APP) of Agriculture Western Australia. The Board maintains a separate appropriation from State Parliament covering about 40% of the state resources of the APP.

Agro—a popular puppet for children's TV. Crafted from a blue shag rug, he's the Oz counterpart to Sesame Street's Oscar the Grouch. You wouldn't guess it, but sometimes the furry bath mat has a very big heart and over the past couple of years has helped hundreds of people with "Agro to the Rescue". The Brisbane radio Morning Crew (including Agro) has organised everything from much-needed holidays for struggling families, to free groceries, to a wheelchair, to CD's, to baby's clothes to house air conditioning.

Aiabadu—alternate spelling of Ajabatha.

Aiabakan—alternate spelling of Ajabakan.

Aiebadu—alternate spelling of Ajabatha.

AIFAIF—(hist.) on the outbreak of the First World War the Australian Government immediately offered to supply Britain with 20,000 troops. As the regular army was organised solely for home defence at the time, a new overseas force, the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was formed. The first Australian Imperial Force troopships left Australia on 7th November 1914. These troops were sent to Egypt for training with British weapons. It was decided to put Australian and New Zealand forces together to form the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). Some were used to defend Suez but most of them were sent to the Gallipoli front under General William Birdwood. The ANZACs suffered over 33,600 losses (over one-third killed) by the time they were ordered to withdraw in January 1916. The Australian Cavalry were transferred to Palestine and served under General Sir Edmund Allenby. The Australians fought with distinction and played an important role in the highly successful Battle of Gaza. The Australian Navy contributed a battle cruiser, five cruisers and six destroyers. Two of Australia's submarines, the AE1 and AE2, were lost in naval operations during the First World War.

AIF Monument at Mont St-Quentin—near Peronne, France—just under 60,000 Australians were killed, the highest death-rate suffered by any national army in the war. The 2nd Division AIF memorial is located at Mont St-Quentin, overlooking Peronne. The original memorial, depicting a digger about to bayonet a German eagle, was removed by the occupying German army in 1940. Australia replaced it with a 2.5m tall, slouch-hatted digger in battle dress.

AIR—(see: Australian Industrial Registry).

AIR Act—(see: Australian Industrial Registry Act).

air and exercise—a prison sentence.

AIRC—(see: Australian Industrial Relations Commission).

Aire River—one of the most ancient rivers in the world, the Aire River encircles the Otway Ranges in Victoria, collecting rainforest streams, before it widens and debouches into Bass Strait. It is the only river in the Otways that is listed under the Heritage Rivers Act. Heritage River status means the river has important nature conservation, scenic, recreational and cultural values. The reserve starts at Hopetoun Falls and runs downstream for 35km to the ocean. The river's mouth was one of the traditional homes of the Katabanut, or 'king parrot', tribe. Middens found in submerged reefs have been dated to between 65,000 and 85,000 years old – the end of the last Ice Age.

Aire Valley—contains the greatest concentration of cool temperate rainforest to be found in the Otway Ranges. Many relict species are preserved within the Aire Valley, chief amongst them being the myrtle beech.

Airey's InletAirey's Inlet—a small and isolated seaside town facing Bass Strait. The town's focal point is the historic Split Point lighthouse. The first settlers arrived in the 1820s. With the advent of the 1850s gold rush, Cobb & Co. provided a regular service from Geelong to nearby Anglesea; and from Anglesea, passengers travelled to Airey's Inlet on a four-horse wagonette. Following the Great War, the Great Ocean Road Trust was formed. The road between Lorne and Anglesea was opened in 1922, putting Airey’s Inlet on a coastal through-route. The town is located 121km south-west of Melbourne via the Princes Highway and the Great Ocean Road. The area was devastated by the Ash Wednesday fires of 1983.

Airiman—alternate spelling of Wagiman.

airs and graces—affected manner; haughtiness; assumed conceited behaviour.

airy-fairy—fanciful; vague.

Aiyaboto—alternate spelling of Ajabatha.

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