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Australia Decoded

Box Jellyfish

Box Jellyfish

By Avispa marina.jpg: Guido Gautsch, Toyota, Japanderivative work: Mithril (Avispa marina.jpg) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

bottle bank—a place where used bottles may be deposited for recycling.

bottle fed—not independent; pampered and sheltered to the detriment of one's independence.

bottle (one's) blood—said to a person who is considered valuable; e.g., "You're so good at your job, they should bottle your blood."

bottle shop—store, part of an hotel where alcohol may be purchased to take away; liquor store.

bottle treeBrachychiton rupestris, a slow-growing three with a rotund, bottle-shaped trunk—requiring up to 80 years to achieve its full girth. Endemic to dry areas of central western Queensland and northern New South Wales, this tree withstands temperatures of -10°C to +50°C in its natural habitat. The starchy tissue of the stems and roots of the bottle tree was eaten, as were the seeds, by Aboriginal peoples. The seeds are surrounded by irritating hairs that were removed by roasting in a fire. The roots yield good quantities of drinking water. The Aborigines also cut holes in the soft trunks of the tree, creating artificial reservoirs. Bottle trees (and related species) have fibrous inner bark that was used for making rope and twine for fishing nets. Also known as the Queensland bottle tree, it is quite distinct from the boab of Western Australia.

bottle-o—(see: bottle shop).

bottlebrush—a shrub or small tree of the genus Callistemon, or its flower. The bottlebrush "flower" is an inflorescence formed by a cluster of small flowers arranged linearly along and around the tips of the branches. Because of this arrangement, the bottlebrush shape is formed by the colourful masses of stamens. When occurring naturally, they are found in open forest or woodland in relatively high rainfall areas, often along watercourses or the edges of swamps. They are closely related to paperbark melaleucas, which also have bottlebrush-shaped inflorescences.

bottlenose dolphinTursiops truncates, a highly variable species with two main forms, inshore and offshore. The bottlenose varies in size, shape, and colour according to which geographical area it lives in. The bottlenose dolphin occurs in all oceans and seas, and are either resident or frequent inhabitants of bays and coastal areas. In-shore dolphins, like those in Port Stephens and Shark Bay, are generally smaller than the offshore dolphins. It has a short, rounded snout, described as bottle-shaped; a smoothly rounded, melon-shaped head; and an overall body length that varies from 1.9m to 4m. The large dorsal fin is slightly hooked and set half-way along the body. The body colour is a series of grey tones with an indistinct paler grey wash on the flanks fading into an off-white belly, and older dolphins are distinguished by a white tip on the snout. Bottlenose dolphins can occur in groups of up to 1000 individuals but are usually found in smaller groups (pods) of 2 to 15 individuals. This is still an abundant species despite incidental kills by the fishing industry.

bottler—something or someone excellent; bonzer.

bottom-of-the-harbour—pertaining to tax-evasion schemes of selling and reselling companies in order to obscure tax records.

Bouddi National Park—there are two main groups of rock outcrops in the park, laid down about 200 million years ago: the Hawkesbury Sandstone at the higher levels, and the softer shales and sandstones of the Narrabeen Group. The underlying, softer, Narrabeen sandstones and shales weather more rapidly than the Hawkesbury sandstone, resulting in the dramatic coastal cliffs and plateau-like features found at higher elevations. The park encompasses a series of small, beautiful beaches beneath forests, steep hills and cliffs. In the eastern part of the park, Maitland Bay is at the heart of the 300ha Marine Extension, where all marine life is protected. Elsewhere, there is plentiful opportunity for fishing in the 1216ha park.

Bouddi Peninsula—the whole of the Bouddi Peninsula is based upon two sedimentary rocks – Hawkesbury sandstone and the Terrigal Formation of the Narrabeen Group. Like many coastal landforms around the world, the coastline in this park was shaped by the last major glacial period. About 19,000 years ago the climate became warmer, causing the melting of the polar ice caps and a rise in sea level. The rising seas caused the coastline and the mouths of many rivers to be flooded, creating drowned river valleys. Since then the glaciers and ice sheets have contracted and the coastline has been uplifted. This process has shaped our coastline, forming rocky, cliffed headlands, rock platforms, bays, beaches, barrier dunes and lagoons.

Bougainville, Louis-Antoine de—the first European to arrive off the east coast of Australia and commander of the first French expedition to the Pacific. The French government ensured that the expedition was well equipped as it was not only to be a voyage of exploration, but also a scientific one. Bougainville was placed in command of the frigate Boudeuse and the store ship Etoile, and departed Nantes on November 15, 1766. Enlightenment expeditions are typified by the first French circumnavigation of the globe, accomplished in 1766 to 1769 by Louis-Antoine de Bougainville. He was gifted in navigation, seamanship, soldiering, mathematics, longitude and latitude, and the arts. A protégé of Madame de Pompadour he was a regular visitor to the aristocratic Paris salons in his youth. In 1763 de Bougainville distinguished himself by founding a French outpost, on the Îles Malouines, now the Falkland Islands, that would be a 'half-way house' for French shipping to the Pacific. In 1766, he received permission from King Louis XV to circumnavigate the globe, sailing to China by way of the Straits of Magellan. He commanded a French navy frigate Boudeuse, and a former merchant ship Étoile. The expedition visited and surveyed Tahiti, Samoa, the New Hebrides, avoided the Solomons, found other islands and named Bougainville Island after himself. He almost found the Great Barrier Reef and the Great Southern Land but turned away due to heavy seas. De Bougainville had the option of taking possession of any empty or new land he came across, 'being careful to erect poles bearing the arms of France' and 'draw up Acts of Possession in the name of His Majesty'. The expedition returned to France in March 1769 loosing only seven men out of a complement of two hundred. Although he made few important discoveries and did not collect much scientific material, he painted a vivid picture of life in the South Seas.

bought in—entered into; became involved (usually with unfavourable consequences).

bought it—died; was killed.

bounce down—1. (Australian Rules football) to bounce the ball in a ball-up. 2. hustle, persuade: e.g., They bounced him into signing. 3. talk boastfully. 4. swagger, self-confidence.

bounce of the ball—(Australian Rules football) luck of the game; way the cookie crumbles.

bound up—euphemism for being constipated.

boundary rider—a person employed to ride round the fences etc of a cattle or sheep station and keep them in good order.

bounder—a cad; a man who does not behave according to social precepts, particularly in regard to his treatment of women.

bouquets or brickbats—praise or criticism.

Bourbon—a chocolate-flavoured biscuit with chocolate-cream filling.

Bourke—when Charles Sturt passed through the district in 1828 he thought that the whole area was 'unlikely to become the haunt of civilised man'. It wasn't until 1835 that Sir Thomas Mitchell returned to the area and constructed a fort about 13km south of the town site. Mitchell had bad relations with the local Aborigines and he felt a fort was suitable protection against their attacks. It was named Fort Bourke after the governor of NSW, Sir Richard Bourke (1777-1855). Eventually the district and later the town came to be known by this name. For decades Bourke was the transport centre for the whole of south-west Queensland and western NSW. Its port was the only efficient way to transport wool to the coastal markets and at its height in the late 1800s over 40,000 bales of wool were being shipped down the Darling River annually. This was a boom time for the town with large landholdings being taken up by optimistic graziers. The unreliability of the rainfall—it averages 340mm but is likely to vary from 150mm one year to 800mm the next—forced many of the optimists out of the area. Located 789km north-west of Sydney, Bourke is situated on the Darling River 110m above sea level. Today it is a thriving country town with a population around 3500 and a sense of prosperity which is the result of its geographic importance as the centre of a large wool, cotton and citrus area.

Bourke, Sir Richard—successor to Macquarie as governor of New South Wales, serving from 1831—1838. Bourke’s administration was characterised by a great expansion of the colony, principally due to a large increase in free settlers from Great Britain. The opening up of the Port Phillip district, which began in 1835, was an important development in Bourke's period of governorship. His immediate response is known as Bourke's Proclamation, in which the concept of terra nullius was invoked as a means of retaining control over Crown lands despite the clamour for settlement. Later that year, Bourke wrote to the Secretary of State, Baron Glenelg, reporting his action and advising a survey to establish a township, and to appoint a police magistrate and an officer of customs. His views were accepted, and On 13 April, 1836, Baron Glenelg authorised Governor Bourke to form a settlement. Captain Lonsdale, the first police magistrate of the new colony, took up duties late in 1836. Bourke visited Port Phillip in March 1837, and having approved of the situation chosen for the township, arranged for the first land sale. In June he forwarded a dispatch to the Colonial Office making suggestions for the administration of the new settlement, which formed the basis for the government eventually established.

Bourke's parrotNeophephotus bourkii, formerly known as Neophema bourki, a small parrot originating in Australia and the only species in its genus Neopsephotus. It is a grass parrot approximately 19cm long and weighing around 45g. It is named after General Sir Richard Bourke, Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837. Bourke's Parakeet display a basically brown overall colouration with pink abdomen, pinkish breast & a blue rump. The legs are dark-brown, with zygodactyl toes. The bill is yellowish-brown. The adult male has a blue forehead while the adult female has a little or no blue on the forehead. The Bourke's parrot's feathers help the species blend in with the reddish soil of its home. Bourke's parrots forage on the ground for grasses and seeds. They are most active feeding at dusk and dawn. Also known as the Bourke's parakeet, Bourke or "Bourkie".

Bourke's Proclamation—(hist.) the response by Governor Sir Richard Bourke of New South Wales, issued in 1835, intended to retain legal possession over distant Crown lands under settlement. Bourke had invoked the early doctrine of terra nullius upon which British settlement was based, reinforcing the notion that the land belonged to no-one prior the British Crown taking possession of it. Settlers were therefore squatters, with no rights under law. The land remained in possession of the British Crown. Aboriginal people therefore could not sell or assign the land—nor could an individual person acquire it – except through distribution by the Crown. Although many people at the time recognised that the Aboriginal occupants did have rights in the lands (and this was confirmed in a House of Commons report on Aboriginal relations in 1837), the law followed (and almost always applied) the principles expressed in Bourke's Proclamation. This situation would not change until the Australian High Court's decision in the Mabo case in 1992. Formally known as Governor Bourke's Proclamation, 1835 (U.K.).

Bournda State Park—coastal features include numerous cliffed headlands and small bays containing sandy or pebbly beaches, with several spectacular clefts created by differential wave erosion. Elevated boulder beaches are visible in some places, such as Boulder Bay. The Bournda area was intensively logged and farmed last century, and the current park area is largely a regenerating landscape. The northern section of the park was logged for railway sleepers in the 1920s and '30s, and for firewood right up until 1986 when this area of the park was declared a state recreation area.

bovver boot—a heavy laced boot worn typically by skinheads.

bovver boy—a hooligan.

bowels turn to water—(to have one's...) to lose courage; suffer intense fear.

Bowen Basin—(see: Sydney-Bowen Basin).

Bowen, Lieutenant John—founder of Tasmania’s first British settlement, at Risdon Cove. Lt Bowen was commissioned by New South Wales’ Governor King to establish a colony on the Derwent River. In a bid to assert British sovereignty in the face of possible French settlement in the area, Governor King had acted without authorisation from the Admiralty. He had decided independently to settle Van Diemen’s Land in the expectation that Lord Hobart, the incumbent Under Secretary of State for War and Colonies, would ultimately approve the action. Lt Bowen set sail from Sydney with 48 settlers, one soldier, and instructions to name the new settlement Hobart. They sailed aboard the Albion and the Lady Nelson, arriving at Risdon Cove on September 12, 1803. Upon receipt of highly favourable reports from Lt Bowen, Governor King sent more convict volunteers. However, within just a few months, Risdon Cove proved to be an unsuitable site for settlement. In January 1804, Governor King instructed Bowen to deliver his charge to Lt Colonel David Collins—who was acting under Royal Letters Patent—if Collins chose the Derwent site. Bowen refused to resign his ‘Instructions’ and deliver up the public stores to Collins, delaying five months before handing over his commission. Lt Bowen left the island on 9 August 1804, and with him went the majority of his small contingent of soldiers, convicts and settlers.

bower bird—19 bowerbirds and catbirds make up the family Ptilonorhynchidae, all of which are small to medium in size, and their distribution is centered around the tropical northern part of Australia-New Guinea. Their most notable characteristic is the extraordinarily complex behaviour of males, which build a bower to attract mates: a collection of look-alike objects that are carefully collected, sorted, and arranged by colour into spectacular structures, often including some hundreds of shells, leaves, flowers, stones or berries. This has led some researchers to regard the bowerbirds as the most advanced of any species of bird. It is traditional to regard the bowerbirds as closely related to the birds of paradise; however recent DNA-DNA hybridisation studies suggest that, although both families are part of the great corvid radiation that took place in or near Australia-New Guinea, the bowerbirds are more distant from the birds of paradise than was once thought. Sibley's landmark DNA studies placed them close to the lyrebirds, however anatomical evidence appears to contradict this and the true relationship remains unclear.

bowgadaAcacia ramulosa, a shrub to 5m tall, often spreading, with erect foliage. Distribution from Shark Bay, WA, through South Australia and southern Northern Territory to central-western Queensland and New South Wales. In the central part of its range, the species usually occurs on sand dunes or in sandy loam in swales, occasionally dominant; on the eastern and southern fringes of its range, on shallow stony soils associated with lateritic outcrops; and in the west, on deep red sands and loams. Also known as horse mulga.

bowl—(cricket) deliver (a ball, an over, etc).

bowl out—(cricket) dismiss (a batman or a side) by knocking down the wicket with a ball.

bowler—1. (cricket) a member of the fielding side who bowls or is bowling. 2. a player at bowls.

bowling average—(cricket) a bowler's conceded runs per wicket taken.

Bowling Green Bay National Park—one of tropical Australia's largest and most diverse coastal wetlands. The wetland complex is mostly coastal plains with tidal mudflats, mangroves and salt marshes. There are 244 species of birds that visit the wetlands, including little tern, waterfowl, brolgas, magpie geese and sanderlings. Approximately half of the species that visit the area also breed there. The lowlands of the national park are listed under the Ramsar Convention as a wetland of international importance. The park extends from the Burdekin delta, westwards to Cleveland Bay and south from Cape Cleveland to the Mount Elliot massif. Located 30km east of Townsville on the Bruce Highway, north Queensland.

bowling-green—the lawn on which the game of bowls is played.

bowls—or lawn bowling, has been around for several thousand years suggest the game made its way across Europe with Julius Caesar's centurions. By the 13th Century, "bowls", was entrenched in the British Isles. At the turn of the century, 1299 AD, the Southhampton Old Bowling Green Club was organized in England. The club remains active today, the oldest of record in the world. Global politics threatened the game for a time. In the 14th Century, it was banned for commoners in France and England because archery, essential for defense, was losing popularity. The Scottish were having none of it. In Scotland the game continued uninterrupted, a favorite among even such legendary notables as Sir Walter Scott and Robert Burns. Today's rules, the flat lawn, and even a dress code, seem to derive from the Scottish. Lawn bowling is distinguished by use of a biased ball. That is, the ball is deliberately lop-sided so that it always curves toward the flat side as it slows down. The object of the game is to obtain points by getting one's ball(s) closest to a small white ball, the "jack", which may be anywhere between 75 and 108 feet away. The balls, or bowls as they are known, vary in size, weight, and degree of bias. Local conditions are factors in selecting bowls. Rules of attire are among the most interesting aspects of the game, Australians require white or tan shoes, a hat, tie, blazer, shirt, long trousers, socks and shoes, white or cream. The tie and blazer may only be worn if officially approved beforehand. Also known as bowling on the green, lawn bowling, bocce.

bowser—petrol pump at filling station; from S.F. Bowser, U.S. inventor of the first such pump.

bowyang—(see: Ben Bowyang).

box—any of several trees in Australasia which have similar wood or foliage, especially those of several species of Eucalyptus.

Box and Cox—two persons sharing accommodation etc, and using it at different times.

box clever—act in a clever or effective way: e.g., She got her man because she was boxing clever.

box jellyfishCaria barnesi, the most venomous marine animal known. The sting of a box jellyfish causes Irandji syndrome, a potentially fatal condition that attacks the central nervous system. There is virtually no chance of surviving the venomous sting unless treated immediately; for those who survive, the scars will last a lifetime and can be disfiguring. ‘Stinger suits’ are now common on beaches within the Far North of Queensland, and most tourist boats encourage visitors to wear them while snorkelling. The box jellyfish is large and pale blue, with trailing tentacles that are transparent and virtually invisible in the water. It propels itself through the water at speeds of up to 4 knots. They are especially active from October to May, although they may be present at any time of year. The affected area is the northerly coast from about Gladstone in Queensland to Broome in Western Australia. The Great Barrier Reef is free of the box jellyfish through all the seasons.

box of birds—pertaining to happiness, elation, good spirits: e.g., He's been like a box of birds since he won the lottery.

box spanner—a spanner with a box-shaped end fitting over the head of a nut.

box tree—any of several eucalypts that commonly form woodlands with an understorey of native grasses and wildflowers. Almost all of these woodlands have been cleared for crops or are grazed by sheep or cattle. Scattered trees remain, but native understorey has been eliminated from most sites. Little-used stock routes contain the last intact fragments of grassy woodlands native to the wheat-sheep belt of south-eastern Australia.

box woodlands—(see: grassy box woodlands).

box-bark—dead bark that is persistent, short-fibred, firm, often breaking into a tessellated pattern, often also partly deciduous and bleached.

box-ironbark—the name derives from the dominant over-storey species. This includes any of several eucalypts that commonly form woodlands with an understorey of native grasses and wildflowers. Almost all of these woodlands have been cleared for cropping or are grazed by sheep or cattle. Scattered trees remain, but native understorey has been eliminated from most sites. Little-used stock routes contain the last intact fragments of grassy woodlands native to the wheat-sheep belt of south-eastern Australia. Box-ironbark also refers to areas where there are boxes but no naturally occurring ironbarks, such as on the Northern Plains, and where mallees are dominant, at the western extent of the range. These provide habitat and microhabitat for an extraordinary range of invertebrate fauna, the base of the food chain.

Boxing Day—the first weekday after Christmas (from the custom of giving tradesmen gifts or money).

boy-o—boy, fellow (especially as a form of address).

Boyd, Benjamin—a 19th century entrepreneur who played an important role in the early development of the Twofold Bay area. One of Boyd's initiatives around Eden was to erect a lighthouse tower at the southern entrance to Twofold Bay. Whilst this tower was never actually used as a lighthouse, it did provide a handy lookout point for many years, from which Eden's shore-based whalers could watch for whales migrating along the coastline.

Boyd's forest dragonHypsilurus boydii, a lizard restricted to the rainforests of northern Queensland, Australia, from just north of Townsville to near Cooktown. It is found in both upland and lowland rainforest, and is often seen around Lake Eacham (Yidyam) and Lake Barrine, and can also be seen in parts of Malanda Falls Conservation Park and at Mossman Gorge. It has very enlarged cheek scales, a prominent crest, and a yellow dewlap under its chin. Adults are sexually dimorphic, with males larger than females and having larger, blockier heads. Adult males grow to an average body length (snout-vent length) of about 160mm, with the tail adding another 325mm; average body length for adult females is about 140mm and tail length is about 280mm. Average body mass for adult males is about 150g and for females is about 100g. It spends the majority of its time perched on the trunks of trees, usually at around head height, although daily movements can exceed 100m. When approached, it will usually move around to the opposite side of the tree, keeping the trunk between it and its harasser. Unlike most other lizards, it doesn't bask, instead letting its body temperature fluctuate with air temperature (thermoconforming rather than thermoregulating). The one possible exception to this general rule is gravid females, which are often observed sitting beside roads and exhibit elevated body temperatures. Boyd's forest dragons typically commence activity at dawn and cease activity at dusk, remaining active even when it rains. Activity is highly seasonal, all but ceasing during the cooler months, when lizards typically move into the rainforest canopy. Both males and females appear to be territorial, with males defending an area of around 1,000 square metres. Female territories are smaller, with male territories often containing the territories of more than one female. Boyd's forest dragons are sit-and-wait predators, catching prey that they spy from their perches although, once on the ground, they will frequently move over a wider area, catching prey as they go. Diet consists primarily of invertebrates, with earthworms making up a relatively high proportion. Small fruits and vertebrates are also occasionally consumed. Reproduction is via eggs, with clutch sizes varying from one to six eggs. Eggs are about 30mm long and 15mm wide, and weigh about 3-4.5g. Egg size and weight are both higher in upland populations. Females in lowland populations may lay more than one clutch in a season, but clutch sizes are typically smaller than those laid by upland females. The eggs are laid in shallow nests, often in rainforest clearings—both natural and man-made (the verges of roads are particularly popular). The eggs take about 100 days to incubate. Sexual maturity is achieved in around one to two years in lowland populations but probably takes at least a year longer in upland populations.

boylya—clever man.

brace and bit—(rhyming slang) shit.

bracelet honey-myrtleMelaleuca armillaris, a graceful, easily grown small tree 4-6m with needle leaves. It has cream, bottlebrush-like flowers and is tolerant of some salt spray. It is frost resistant when mature but may need some protection when young. Because it usually bears branches to the ground and has a dense habit, it is often used as a windbreak.

Brachina Gorge—a spectacular gorge that meanders through sawtooth ridges of resistant quartzite and limestone. Located in central Flinders Ranges, WA.

Brachina Gorge Geological Trail—exhibits some of the world's oldest rocks and provides a unique record of environments, events and climatic conditions of 150 million years ago. The rocks exposed along the trail were once sediments deposited in a shallow, elongate basin known as the Adelaide Geosyncline. These sediments were transported by rivers and at times by glaciers, and deposited on the seafloor between 650 and 500 million years ago. The area was flooded by the sea for much of that 150 million year period, during which the sea level rose and fell many times. About 500 million years ago, movements in the Earth's crust caused the pile of sediments to be compressed into sedimentary rocks, then folded and pushed up into a mountain range. This mountain-building (orogeny) took place over many millions of years, during which time fold structures, such as Wilpena Pound, were formed. Weathering and erosion have subsequently reduced the height of the original mountain range by several kilometres, leaving the present ranges and exposing the edges of the folded layers. These rocks provide one of the most complete sedimentary records in the world for this age. Located in Flinders Ranges National Park, 500km north of Adelaide.

brachycombe—(see: Swan River daisy).

brackenPteridium esculentum, a prolific native fern and a source of sustenance to some Aboriginal people . The Cadigal chewed the roots, or beat out a sticky, nutritious starch from the rhizomes (swollen roots) of this fern.

bracket—the nose.

Bradshaw figures—scattered over a 50,000sq km expanse of the Kimberley, the Bradshaws comprise a highly sophisticated art form believed to have been painted largely by Ice Age hunter-gatherer tribes. An estimated 100,000 Bradshaw galleries exist in the Kimberley, ranking among the world's oldest depictions of religious behaviour and illustrating some of humankind's earliest garments. Bradshaws are predominantly human figures drawn in fine detail with accurate anatomical proportioning, characteristics uncommon to most rock art systems. On craggy rock faces clustered around northern Kimberley's seven major river systems, the predominantly reddish figures strike elegant running poses, hunt with boomerangs and spears, or seemingly float in space. Some even carry out ritualistic movements, such as bobbing up and down, adorned with elaborate headdresses and body ornamentation. Joseph Bradshaw stumbled upon the unique rock art in 1891, and while the term Bradshaw is entrenched in the literature, the Bradshaws span an area that is home to several Aboriginal nations, each of which uses a different name for the paintings. Some experts believe Bradshaw rock art may be up to 60,000 years old, however dating the Bradshaw rock art system is a notoriously difficult task—thermoluminescence dating provided a minimum date of 17,500 (±1,800) years before present (BP), while the radiocarbon method has indicated more recent dates of 1450 to 3900 years BP.

Brady, Matthew—Australia's Robin Hood, convict rebel leader and bushranger (1799-1826) was condemned to the penal hell hole at Macquarie Harbour. In the first four years of his transportation he took 350 lashes. In June 1824, Brady and thirteen other convicts escaped in a whaleboat and set up a permanent headquarters in the bush. His gang robbed travellers and outlying settlers, gaining wealth and reputation in the process. If a convict gave information that led to the arrest of one of these bandits, he would get his ticket-of-leave. If he caught the bushranger himself, he got a conditional pardon. He was nicknamed the "gentleman bushranger" because he was so polite to women, thanked those he robbed and would never harm a woman or let any of his gang do so. When his partner McCabe threatened to rape a settler's wife, Brady shot him through the hand, flogged him mercilessly and threw him out of the gang. He waged systematic war against the British empire, its army, police and administration. The gang was fearless in attacking, and systematically targeted their civil oppressors, especially "flogging magistrates". Lieutenant-Governor Arthur, who was a tirelessly methodical man, eventually wore Brady down. He offered irresistible rewards—300 guineas or 300 acres of land free of quit-rent to the man who brought Brady in; or, for convicts, a full unconditional pardon and free passage to England. He also successfully sent out police spies wearing convict chains, who infiltrated Brady's force using the cover story that they had escaped from an iron gang and were on the run. Thus betrayed from within he was quickly outflanked by government forces. Brady was shot in the leg in the ensuing battle near Paterson's Plains, just outside of Launceston. He got away but was captured a few days later, limping and exhausted, by a settler named John Batman (the future founder of Melbourne). On May 4, 1826, Brady received his last Communion and mounted the scaffold above a sea of colonial faces, contorted in grief, and they cheered him over the drop; only his enemies were silent.

Brahminy kiteHaliater indus, a solitary, coastal raptor, coming together only during the breeding season. Inhabits the northern half of Australia. The Brahminy may be found in coastal areas from northern Australia throughout New Guinea, Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and up to India and southern China. Easily recognised by the hunting practice of coasting in low circles, wings held horizontally straight. Hunting grounds include estuaries, harbours and mangroves, where they feed on fish, small animals and crustaceans; and open plains, where they hunt mice, reptiles and grasshoppers. They frequently nest in mangrove trees and feed off fish and other marine life washed up by the tides. Breeding usually occurs Winter-Spring, usually between April and October, occasionally also in January and February. They nest near the top of a tree close to water at heights from ten to twenty metres, or in mangrove often less than ten metres. The Brahminy kite derives its name from the Brahmin caste of India, where in certain systems of belief, the bird is held sacred.

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