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'B-2'


Old Man Banksia

Old Man Banksia (Banksia serrata)
by BjοΏ½rn Christian TοΏ½rrissen - Own work by uploader, http://bjornfree.com/galleries.html, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link



bangalayEucalyptus botryoides, a small-to-tall tree native to south-eastern Australia. Reaching up to 40m high, it has rough bark on its trunk and branches. It is found on sandstone- or shale-based soils in open woodland, or on more sandy soils behind sand dunes. The white flowers appear in summer and autumn. It reproduces by resprouting from its woody lignotuber or epicormic buds after bushfire. The hard, durable wood has been used for panelling and flooring. The tree was first described by naturalist James Edward Smith in 1797, without nominating a type specimen, and still bears its original name. Its closest relatives are the red mahogany (Eucalyptus scias) and the Blue Mountains mahogany (E. notabilis), red mahogany/red messmate (E. resinifera) and swamp mahogany (E. robusta). South of Sydney Harbour and Parramatta River, E. botryoides forms hybrid populations with Sydney blue gum (E. saligna). In favourable conditions, Eucalyptus botryoides can grow as a straight-trunked tree to 40m high with a dbh of 1m, although it is often shorter in poorer situations. In exposed areas behind sand dunes, it is a lower spreading tree 8-12m tall, with its leaves forming a dense crown, or even a multitrunked mallee form in poor, sandy soils. ] It has a swollen, woody base known as a lignotuber which can reach 6m in diameter. The thick, fibrous, rough bark covers the trunk and larger branches, and is vertically furrowed. The bark is more greyish brown in trees of inland forest origin, and a redder brown in those of more coastal origin. Developing from small, cylindrical or club-shaped (clavate) buds, the white flowers appear from January to April, and are arranged in groups of seven to eleven in umbellasters. The woody fruits, or gumnuts, are ovoid or cylindrical in shape, and measure between 7-12mm long and 4-6mm wide, with the valve near the rim or enclosed. Distribution is coastal south-eastern Australia from near Newcastle on the mid coast of New South Wales to eastern Victoria in the Lakes Entrance area, specifically Loch Sport south of Bairnsdale. The species was introduced to Western Australia, where it is listed as an alien. It grows predominantly on low-nutrient, sandstone-derived or sandy soils, either behind coastal sand dunes or further inland in alluvial soils in valleys, where it is a dominant tree. It is generally not far from salt water. Eucalyptus botryoides is only found in lowlands, from sea level to 300m altitude, and in areas of rainfall from 700-1300mm. Trees in mixed open forest it grows with include turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera), spotted gum (Corymbia maculata), red bloodwood (C. gummifera), blackbutt (E. pilularis), Sydney blue gum, red mahogany (E. resinifera) and smooth-barked apple (Angophora costata). Associated understory plants in wetter forests with some rainforest transition include lilly-pilly (Syzygium smithii) and wattles. In coastal plant communities near sand-dunes, it grows with stunted forms of white stringybark (E. globoidea), silvertop ash (E. sieberi), banksia and such understory plants as burrawang (Macrozamia communis). It is a component tree of wetland forest in Booderee National Park alongside blackbutt, red bloodwood, grey ironbark (Eucalyptus paniculata), scribbly gum (E. sclerophylla), old man banksia (Banksia serrata), coast banksia (B. integrifolia) and snow-in-summer (Melaleuca linariifolia), with understory plants such as jointed twig-rush (Baumea articulata), tall spike-rush (Eleocharis sphacelata), prickly tea-tree (Leptospermum juniperinum), and zig-zag bog-rush (Schoenus brevifolius). Eucalyptus botryoides regenerates after bushfire by resprouting from epicormic buds and its woody lignotuber. Plants have been dated at 600 years of age. It also drops branches, and these have been known to grow roots. The wet environment and water-absorbing qualities of the thick, fibrous bark facilitate this. The koala eats the leaves, and ants consume the nectar. The species is highly susceptible to psyllids. commonly known as southern mahogany.

Bangalow—the only intact Federation village on Australia's east coast. Situated on rolling green hills immediately above the tourist mecca of Byron Bay, the town of Bangalow offers panoramic views, pristine rainforest and secluded waterfalls. The area was settled by cedar cutters in the 1840s, but soon became a predominantly farming community. The town bears the same name as an endemic native palm tree. This name derives from the language of the Banjalang Aboriginal people who lived in the area before European settlement in the 1840s. Bangalow is located 778km north of Sydney, 168km south of Brisbane and 12km west of Byron Bay.

Bangalow palmArchontophoenix cunninghamiana, a very similar palm to Archontophoenix alexandrae in both appearance and size (it gets to about 25metres tall with a spread of about 2-2.5m). The leaves, which have paler stalks, are bright green above and below, although there can also be brown scales underneath. They are much heavier looking than A. alexandrae, and consequntly are more likely to be damaged by heavy winds. Thus they are often better suited to more sheltered areas, while A. alexandrae can take more exposed positions. A tall palm tree of sub-tropical to tropical rainforests of the central eastern Australian coast. Their cord-like root system reduces erosion, and they are renowned for their ability to withstand cyclonic winds: often one of the few plants to survive a direct hit. A. cunninghamiana produces an edible cabbage and lilac flowers, and the red fruits are attractive to birds. It flowers in midsummer. Popular with early European settlers, this palm was often left standing when land was cleared for crops It has become a noxious weed in many areas where it has been used as an ornamental plant. In New Zealand, there is concern that A. cunninghamiana could invade native forests, since it has the same ecological requirements as the native nikau palm. Also known as piccabean palm, king palm, Illawara palm.

banged up—pregnant (with child); preggers.

Bangemall Basin—the Mesoproterozoic Bangemall Basin outcrops as a linear belt in the western part bounded to the west by Gascoyne Province, to the north by Hamersley Basin and to the south by Nabberu Basin. The western linear belt fans out to the east and abuts against Canning Basin and Officer Basin. The sedimentary succession has been heavily intruded by dolerite sills and dykes. The lowest member comprises coarse sandstone and conglomerate at some places and dolomite and shale at most other places. Shale, dolomite, sandstone and chert in the main make up the rest of the succession. Considerable lateral variation of thicknesses of horizons have been observed. Most of the succession was deposited under marine conditions. Like the Hamersley Basin, Bangemall Basin is also a broad synclinorium with gentle northern limb and folded southern limb. The fold trends usually follow the basin's northern boundary in the western part. There is not much evidence of metamorphism in the basin.

bangers—sausages: the popular explanation for this commonly used term being that, when pan-fried, the expanding sausage pops its skin with a bang.

bangers and mash—sausages and mashed potatoes, an ever-popular evening meal.

bangs like a dunny door (in a gale)—extremely promiscuous.

Bangtail Muster—The annual fund-raiser for the Alice Springs Youth Centre. The centrepiece is a parade of floats down Todd Mall, organised by Central Australian business houses, service organisations and basically anybody with a madcap sense of fun. The parade starts at 11.00, adjacent to the Memorial Club, and finishes at Anzac Oval. The story behind the Muster goes back to the old days when cattle were the main industry of the Centre. Stockmen would cut off the ends of the tails to record the number of cattle mustered.

Banjalong—a soybean variety engineered by the CSIRO to be able to compete successfully against native weeds.

banjo—1. shovel; spade. 2. shoulder of mutton. 3. frying pan. 4. (cap) the nickname of author A.G. Paterson, of 'Waltzing Matilda' fame.

Banks, Sir Joseph—born in London into a wealthy family, on 13 February 1743, his passion for botany and dedication to Linnean precepts had developed to such an extent that, unable to study botany at Oxford, Banks employed a private tutor, Isaac Lyons, from Cambridge. As was usual for members of his social class, Banks did not take out a degree. As an independent naturalist, Banks participated in a voyage to Newfoundland and Labrador in 1767. In 1778 he was elected President of the Royal Society, a position he held with varying degrees of support, until his death in 1820. He successfully lobbied the Royal Society to be included on what was to be James Cook's first great voyage of discovery, on board the Endeavour (1768-1771). This voyage marked the beginning of Banks' lifelong friendship and collaboration with the Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, one of Linnaeus' most esteemed pupils, and the beginning of Banks' lifelong advocacy of British settlement in New South Wales. The Endeavour had sailed into Botany Bay in April 1770 and proceeded up the east coast and through Torres Strait, charting the east coast of Australia in the process. From this time, Banks was actively involved in almost every aspect of Pacific exploration and early Australian colonial life. He actively supported the proposal of Botany Bay as a site for British settlement. He proposed William Bligh to command two voyages for the transportation of breadfruit and other plants, including the ill-fated voyage on the Bounty, which ended in mutiny in April 1789. He had a role in choosing the governors of the settlement in New South Wales, founded in January 1788 with the arrival of the First Fleet. It was Banks who later recommended Bligh to succeed Philip Gidley King as the fourth Governor of New South Wales, Bligh's governorship ending in deposition during the Rum Rebellion in 1808. Banks corresponded with the first four Governors of New South Wales who, while they reported officially to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, also reported privately and therefore more intimately and openly to Banks. Practically anyone who wanted to travel to New South Wales, in almost any capacity, consulted Sir Joseph Banks. He was the one constant throughout the first 30 years of white settlement in Australia, through changes of ministers, government and policy. Banks organised Matthew Flinders' voyage on the Investigator (1801-1803) which helped define the map of Australia. He had connections with Sir George Macartney's embassy to China (1792-1794), and with George Vancouver's epic voyage to the north-west coast of America (1791-1795). He sent botanists to all parts of the world, including New South Wales, often at his own expense. Their collections were added to both Kew Gardens and to Banks' own collections. King George III had appointed Banks adviser to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew some time after his return from the Pacific. His informal role as governmental adviser on a range of issues was recognised in 1797 with his appointment to the Privy Council. He served as a member of the committees on trade and on coin. In his capacity as President of the Royal Society he was also involved in the activities of the Board of Longitude and the Greenwich Royal Observatory, the Board of Agriculture (founded in 1793) and the African Association (founded in 1788). He was also a Trustee of the British Museum. In addition to the Banks family estates in Lincolnshire, Banks acquired his main London residence at 32 Soho Square in 1776. It was established as his London home and scientific base. His natural history collections were housed there and made freely available to bona fide scientists and researchers. Until his death, this house was a centre for the wider scientific community. He did not discriminate between British and foreign scientists. He was, in fact, influential in maintaining scientific relations with France, for example, during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. In 1819 he was appointed Chairman to two committees established by the House of Commons, one to enquire into prevention of banknote forgery, the other to consider systems of weights and measures. Banks was created a baronet in 1781 and invested Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1795. Sir Joseph Banks died on 19 June 1820.

Banks' grevilleaGrevillea banksii, a widely cultivated native plant, and the genetic parent of many hybrids. An upright small tree form is found in areas around Townsville and Maryborough in Queensland, while prostrate forms can be found along the central Queensland coast and adjacent islands. Endemic to coastal Queensland and surrounding Islands from Ipswich to Yeppoon; westward to the hills west of Eidsvold; and with a disjunct population between Ingham and Townsville and a few southern occurrences near Esk and Coominya.

Banksia—an evolutionarily ancient genus in the Protea family (Proteaceae), a genus of around 170 species. Archaeological evidence suggests that banksias or banksia-like plants have existed for over 40 million years. consisting of about 75 species of evergreen, shrubby angiosperms (flowering plant). Banksia archaeocarpa is the earliest known banksia, and began to dominate the drier habitats during the Tertiary era. Banksia species that grow as shrubs are usually erect, but there are several species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil. The leaves of banksia vary greatly between species. Sizes vary from the narrow, 1-1½cm long leaves of B. ericifolia (heath-leaved banksia), to the very large leaves of B. grandis (bull banksia), which may be up to 45cm long. The leaves of most species have serrated edges, but a few, such as B. integrifolia, do not. Leaves are usually arranged along the branches in irregular spirals, but in some species they are crowded together in whorls. The character most commonly associated with banksia is the flower spike, an elongated inflorescence consisting of a woody axis covered in tightly-packed pairs of flowers attached at right angles. A single flower spike generally contains hundreds or even thousands of flowers; the most recorded is around 6000 on inflorescences of B. grandis. Not all banksia have an elongate flower spike, however. Banksia flowers are usually a shade of yellow, but orange, red, pink and even violet flowers also occur. Despite the large number of flowers per inflorescence, only a few of them ever develop fruit, and in some species a flower spike will set no fruit at all. The fruit of banksia is a woody follicle embedded in the axis of the inflorescence. In some species the follicles open as soon as the seed is mature, but in most species most follicles open only after stimulated to do so by bushfire. The Banksia genus was first described and named by Carolus Linnaeus the Younger in his April 1782 publication Supplementum Plantarum; hence the full name for the genus is Banksia L.f. The genus name honours the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who collected the first Banksia specimens in 1770, during James Cook's first expedition. All but one of the living Banksia species are endemic to Australia. South-west Western Australia is the main centre of biodiversity; over 90% of all Banksia species occur only there, from Exmouth in the north, south and east to beyond Esperance on the south coast. Eastern Australia has far fewer species, but these include some of best known and most widely distributed species, including B. integrifolia (coast banksia) and B. spinulosa (hairpin banksia). With the exception of B. rosserae, no species tolerates annual rainfall of less than 200mm, despite many species surviving in areas that receive less than 400mm. The greatest species richness occurs in association with uplands, especially the Stirling Range. Banksias are heavy producers of nectar, making them an important source of food for nectivorous animals, including honeyeaters and small mammals such as rodents, antechinus, honey possums, pygmy possums, gliders and bats. Many of these animals play a role in pollination of Banksia. Banksia plants are naturally adapted to the presence of regular bushfires in the Australian landscape. About half of Banksia species are killed by bushfire, but these regenerate quickly from seed, as fire also stimulates the opening of seed-bearing follicles and the germination of seed in the ground. The remaining species usually survive bushfire, either because they have very thick bark that protects the trunk from fire, or because they have lignotubers from which they can resprout after fire. Aborigines used nectar from the flowers to make a sweet drink.

Banksia Foundation—a not-for-profit organisation that has been operating since 1988 to inspire sustainable development through positive reinforcement. The Foundation's leading program is the Banksia Sustainability Awards that recognise Australia's innovative examples of sustainable research, practices and services. Through its 21 categories they are able to seek out Australia's inspirational case-studies and promote throughout Australia, enabling organisations to see the benefits and positive outcomes in adopting a sustainable path to ensure a healthy environment for our future generations.

Banksia Man—1. the large woody cone of several Banksia species 2. a character from May Gibbs' children's classic, Gumnut Babies; the Banksia Man cone was named after the character.

Banksian cockatooCalyptorhynchus banksii, consisting of five subspecies, two of which are considered threatened by the loss of nest hollows: C.b. naso of south-west Western Australia by forest management practices, and C.b. graptogyne of south-eastern Australia by past land clearance. Inhabits areas of open forest, woodland, scrub, and riverine forest. Also known as Bank's black cockatoo and red-tailed black cockatoo.

Banteng cattle—in 1849, 20 Banteng cattle were imported to the Cobourg Peninsula from Bali. The European settlement was abandoned shortly after the animals were imported, and the cattle were left to run wild on the isolated peninsula. They survived as a feral population, unknown to scientists until re-discovered in 1948. This herd is now the world's largest free-ranging herd of Banteng. Much of the peninsula is now Gurig National Park, jointly managed by its traditional owners and the Northern Territory Conservation Commission. Banteng are abundant in the park, numbering in the thousands, and there is some evidence of their impact on native ecosystems through heavy grazing. However, they are a valued trophy animal for hunters and hence a source of income for the traditional owners. Back in their original homeland of South-East Asia, Banteng cattle are now extremely rare.

banyan treeFicus virens An-borndi, a large and spreading tree with aerial roots, and large prop roots from the major branches. It is a strangler fig with edible fruits. Its seeds usually germinate in the branches of some tree where they have been dropped by birds. The banyan ultimately crowds out the host tree, sometimes covering large areas. though its buttress roots provide a sheltered environment for other kinds of plants to flourish. Banyan grows in tropical wet and dry monsoon regions. Isolated pockets of monsoon forest growing along the coast and riverbanks of Kakadu contain impressive specimens of the tree. Found in Far North Queensland.

bar—excluding; except for: e.g., All, bar none.

bar-shouldered doveGeopelia humeralis, a native pigeon. Notable for its hop-off call and noisy flapping of wings as it takes flight. Feeds on the seeds of grasses and cereal crops, and berries. Inhabits open eucalypt woodlands, mangroves, coastal scrubs of tropical and subtropical regions, and some agricultural areas. A familiar bird of farm-yards and fowl pens around Brisbane, and sometimes found in urban areas. Also known as the mangrove dove.

bar-tailed godwitLimosa lapponica, a large wading bird with a very distinctive long, straight beak, upturned at the end in the opposite curve to the eastern curlew. Its beak is rubbery and flexible at the tip, allowing it to open the tip of its beak in the mud, whilst keeping the rest of its beak closed. Like the curlew it uses its long beak to probe the sand and mud flats for prawns, pipis and marine worms. Tens of thousands of birds land in Australia's north-west and move around the coast of Australia, where they inhabit estuarine mudflats, beaches and mangroves. There appear to be two separate populations of bar-tailed godwits—one breeds in Alaska and spends the southern summer in eastern Australia and New Zealand; the other breeds in north central Siberia and migrates to Broome in north-west Australia. In contrast to the mottled grey upper parts of the body, the head, breast and belly of the male bar-tailed godwit are a vivid red-brown colour during breeding season. As the name suggests, the bar-tailed godwit has a series of grey-brown bands across its otherwise white tail feathers.

Barak, William—the last traditional great leader of the Wurundjeri (Yarra Yarra tribe), who had lived along the Werribee River for 40,000 years prior to European settlement. William Barak bore witness to the signing of the 'treaty' presented by John Batman to the Woiwurrung and Bunurong elders.

Barambah—(see: Cherbourg).

Barbaram—an indigenous tribe that is thought to represent a Tasmanoid group. This tribe of formerly scrub-dwelling people was located onto sterile and rugged granite ranges in the Great Dividing Range, north nearly to Mareeba and south to Irvinebank and the northern vicinity of Mount Garnet. The tribe is now extinct

.barbie/barby—a barbecue, generally of the backyard variety: e.g., Throw another shrimp on the barbie.

Barcoo—1. a river in outback Queensland; once a thriving opal-mining area, the mines closed due to an insufficient supply of water. In 1873, precious (boulder) opal, that soon became known internationally as 'Barcoo opal', was discovered on hills of the Barcoo district. These opal-bearing, mesa-shaped hills, were located to the north of Thargomindah and some 160km to the east of Listowel Downs, the source of the Bulloo River and its tributaries that drained intermittently to the west. Following the discovery of further boulder opal deposits in hills surrounding Kynuna, hundreds of kilometres to the north, entrepreneurs began, somewhat unsuccessfully, to attempt to market Australian boulder opal to the world. However, by the end of the 1870s, pioneer miner Joe Bridel had discovered a new form of precious opal at Stony Creek in the Kyabra Hills that lie north-west of Quilpie and to the south of Widorah. It was the solid seams, 'pipes' and nodules of precious opal from this sandstone opal that the pioneering opal marketeer Tullie Cornthwaite Wollaston took to London in 1890 to initiate the Australian opal industry. 2. of or relating to a remote area of the country.

Barcoo rot—a term for scurvy amongst inland Queenslanders; a common bush ailment during the time of settlement, the result of a diet consisting of tea or coffee, damper and salt.

Barcoo salute—(see: Australian salute).

Barcoo sickness—illness marked by attacks of vomiting.

Barcoo sore—an ulceration of the skin characteristic of Barcoo rot combined with sunburn, most often afflicting the backs of the hands.

Bardi—research into the resource use strategies of the Bardi Aboriginal people of One Arm Point, Western Australia, found that they maximize the consumption of specific beneficial marine FA. The Bardi assess the relative fatness of fish and animal species in their environment, procuring fish and marine species only when they are considered to be at their fattest stage: during specific seasons; at specific physiological life stages, or through on-site evaluation. Comparative lipid analysis has established that the Bardi hunters' selection process between species and within species and the selection of specific fish fat deposits increase the levels of beneficial F made available to the community. Bardi fishing and hunting patterns meet a demand for fat within the community and may protect many species of fish whose spawning season is inversely related to the accumulation of the specific gut fat deposits sought by the Bardi. These fat deposits make up for the relatively low levels of fat in the flesh of tropical fish.

bardi grub—the larva of the beetle Bardistus cibarius, or of Abantiades marcidus. Bardi is also used generally for the larvae of Cerambycid beetles, as well as various ground-dwelling and wood-boring moth larvae, including that of rain moth (Trictena atripalpis). The first is traditional bush tucker, and all make good bait for fishing.

bare-eyed cockatooCacatua pastinator sanguinea, the little corella.

barge in—to intrude, either physically or in speech: e.g., Don't just come barging in here, without knocking first!

barger—an uninvited guest.

bark dish—made from bark of a tea tree or stringybark. The piece is oblong in shape and the ends folded up and fastened in place with a wooden spike or string. This dish is primarily used for gathering and carrying foodstuffs (such as roots, or sugarbag honey and wax after harvesting) and water.

bark painting—an Aboriginal art form, executed on bark with a stick dipped in natural earthen pigments, which is highly stylised according to the tribal origin of the artist. Traditionally, painting on bark was a method of recording knowledge specific to groups living in northern Australia. Bark paintings were the deeds of ownership to the land, incorporating a family tree. The knowledge that is held in these images is the intellectual property of the community, and is copyrighted to its custodian.

bark petitions—presented to the Commonwealth Parliament in 1963. These petitions were the first traditional documents recognised by the Parliament. They began a chain of events that eventually led to the Northern Territory Land Rights Act, 1963, under which Arnhem Land was returned to its traditional owners.

Barker, Collet—in 1831, was instructed by Governor Darling of New South Wales to examine the outlet of the River Murray while returning in the Isabella from Western Australia. He climbed Mount Lofty, and then crossed from Rapid Bay to the Murray. After swimming the mouth he was apparently killed by Aborigines. His party reported fertile land and the presence of a pass from Gulf St Vincent to the Murray.

Barkindji—an Aboriginal nation whose traditional lands are in far western New South Wales, encompassing Broken Hill's satellite towns of Wilcannia, Menindee, Ivanhoe and Durton. In 1856 a pastoral holding called Mount Murchison was formed near the current site of Wilcannia, and much of the land belonging to the local Barkindji people was taken under European control. Wilcannia is the original Aboriginal name for the area. Mutawintji is the national parkland returned to its Barkindji traditional owners.

barking geckoUnderwoodisaurus milii, some 95mm from snout to vent. It is uniquely coloured, being reddish-brown with white to yellowish spots, often arranged to form transverse bands. The tail is often banded white, and is distinct, being large near the base and rapidly coming to a fine point near the end. The barking gecko is found over a wide area of south-west WA, from Shark Bay in the north, through the lower and mid south-west, to the South Australian border. Around Perth, it favours granite outcrops in the Darling Range, where it is very common, under slabs of exfoliating granite and under rubbish. The barking gecko is apparently more cold-tolerant than other gecko species and is often seen active on cold nights. It maintains an aggressive posture when disturbed, raising its tail, opening its mouth and leaping toward the aggressor. It may often emit an audible "bark", hence its common name. It is known to lay two soft-shelled eggs.

barking owlNinox connivens, a native owl characterised by the bark-like call that it uses to flag its territory. Once an inhabitant of all except the arid parts of Australia, its survival is now threatened by the widespread destruction of its environment. The clearing of low-lying fertile areas has largely deprived the bird of the large hollows in several particular tree species that are necessary for breeding.

barking spider- Selenoismia Cresipes, an Australian tarantula. Their rasping, supposedly bark-like sound is produced by rubbing their palps over their fangs as a warning when they are disturbed. The largest are found in Queensland. With a 60mm body and a leg span of 160mm, this spider is nearly as large as a man's hand. The body is covered in velvety hairs, and the legs in long hairs. Claw tufts enable them to run up smooth, vertical surfaces. Sometimes called the whistling spider or the bird-eating spider, although it engages in neither activity.

Barkly Tableland—the most economically important area for pastoral production in the Northern Territory. This area comprises 44 properties, of which 25 are corporately owned. These 25 properties cover more than half the Barkly region, and some of the largest cattle grazing properties in the world can be found in this region (the largest lease is over 12,000sq km and runs around 65,000 head of cattle). It is a vast terrain of flat to very gently undulating plains of Mitchell grass. Although the area is characterised by cracking clay pans and there is little permanent surface water on the tableland, a comprehensive network of bores feed raised earth dams ('turkey-nests') for watering cattle. These properties draw heavily on the artesian wells beneath them, and many large leases have at work a hundred or more bores. Drainage flows to several large shallow lakes in the centre of the region. Extensive aeolian sand plains encroach upon the tableland's southern margin. Situated north-east of Tennant Creek and extending into Queensland, the tablelands are semi-arid and rainfall is monsoonal, an area of about 100,000sq km.

barley!—call for a respite from the rules of a game: a regional term used by children in Victoria.

barley sugar—an amber-coloured boiled lolly, traditionally made with water in which barley has been simmered for several hours before bringing it to a boil and adding sugar. Today it is made of boiled sugar—without barley and with various flavourings.

barley water—a traditional British herbal tea, usually flavoured with lemon or other fruit. It is made by boiling washed pearl barley, straining, then pouring the hot water over the rind and/or pulp of the fruit, and adding fruit juice and sugar to taste. The rind may also be boiled with the barley. Drinking boiled grain in water, strained or not, is an ancient practice. Kykeon was an Ancient Greek drink made mainly of water, barley and naturally occurring substances. It was used at the climax of the Eleusinian Mysteries to break a sacred fast, but it was also a favourite drink of Greek peasants. Barley water has been used as a first baby food, before feeding with barley mush. It is also used as a home remedy for cystitis. The Labour politician filibuster in Parliament, sustaining himself with barley water and chocolate, in 1913. In the Tortall books of Tamora Pierce, Beka Cooper asks for barley water or raspberry twilsey (fruit vinegar in water) in bars instead of alcoholic drinks.

Barmah—a small town on the Murray River, best-known as the gateway to the Barmah State Forest. The Barmah area was occupied by the Yorta Yorta people prior to European settlement, which occurred in the 1870s. Barmah is located about 30km north-east of Echuca and 236km north of Melbourne, in Victoria.

Barmah Forest virus—an arbovirus, spread by mosquitoes that have picked it up from either infected marsupials or humans. The symptoms (fatigue, muscle weakness and bodily aches and pains) are very similar to those of the Ross River virus. Cases of the virus have been diagnosed throughout eastern Australia, although it most commonly occurs in northern Queensland. Australia is the only country where Barmah Forest virus has been identified. Barmah State Forest—a 29,500ha habitat situated on the Murray floodplains. The area usually floods in winter, creating a wetland biosphere that becomes a breeding ground for birds. Flooding inundates the forest to a depth of 1-2m in most places, providing an important refuge for birds such as the straw-necked ibis and the Australian white ibis. The forest also provides a habitat to more than 550 plant species and 31 species of wildlife, including the endangered superb parrot and regent honeyeater. Some of the trees in the forest are estimated to be over 300 years old and are over 40m high. Extensive logging has been carried out in Barmah Forest since the 1860s. It is estimated that 2.5 million cubic metres of river red gum has been harvested since that time. Two sections at the easternmost and westernmost fringes of the forest are technically a wetland area of northern Victoria. The combination of the Barmah State Forest and the Moira State Park (in NSW) forms the largest red gum forest in the world. The Barmah State Forest has both World Heritage and Ramsar listing. Located near the town of Echuca on the Murray River.

Barmah State Park—a 7900ha area on the Murray River flood plain between Echuca and Tocumwal, about 225km north of Melbourne. Together with Barmah Forest, they make up the largest river red gum forest in Victoria. Equally, the area could be called a wetland as much of it is frequently flooded. The varied environment supports 219 species of birds as well as numerous mammals, reptiles and amphibians. The forest is on a major flight path for migratory birds as well as being an internationally significant wetland breeding ground for waterbirds. Platypuses can sometimes be spotted in quiet backwaters. The oldest river red gums in Barmah Forest are probably over 500 years old. They often grow to 30m, some reaching 45m. More than 80 per cent of the forest is covered by these sturdy trees, whose trunks develop a gnarled, rock-like character. They tend to grow out and branch more heavily than other trees. Old,rotted limbs and hollows in the trees are nesting places for birds and animals The rich environment along the Murray River supported large numbers of Aboriginal people over many thousands of years. Descendants of these people still live in the area and are involved in recovering their heritage and in managing the natural environment. Heavy cutting of trees began in the 1860s with the building of the railway line from Bendigo to Echuca. The durability of river red gum and its resistance to termites made it suitable for railway sleepers, building foundations, fencing, wharves and mine timbers. It was also used to fuel river boats. Some 2000 workers fed the sawmills, devastating the forest until regulations in 1877 introduced more controlled logging. Settlers began grazing their stock in the forest, and this practice continues. The forest evolved in conditions of regular winter and spring flooding but modern water management has altered this. Water control subjects some parts of the forest to long and unseasonable flooding, and this has led to speculation about the future of the red gums.

barmy (as a bandicoot)—full of barm (the froth formed on fermenting liquor), i.e. crazy.

Barnard's parrakeet—(see: mallee ringneck).

barney—noisy argument or fight; a row.

Baroota—the Baroota, Stony Creek and Beautiful Valley pastoral runs represented the first European land use of parts of what is now Mount Remarkable National Park. Pastoral runs were resumed and subdivided in the 1870s. There followed a succession of leaseholders, many of whom still live in the area and retain an interest in the park. The Baroota Land System takes in the coastal plains to the west of the Flinders Ranges. The soils are deep, sandy loams typical of alluvial deposits. The region is divided by Goyder's line of rainfall, which marks the 'northern most limits of feasible agriculture'. Rainfall is relatively low, ranging between 450mm to 650mm per annum. Irrigation comes from underground water; however, there is a focus on 'dry grown' premium quality grapes. The region produces a wide range of grape varieties, though its strength lies in red grape production, with three main varieties being produced: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Shiraz. The first grapes were grown in the region in the 1890s; however, it is only in the past 10 years that the industry has become a significant commercial operation. Reduced demand on water supplies, early harvesting and a ready market in Barossa Valley wineries has made grape production a viable agricultural industry.

Barossa Valley—a region of South Australia within the Flinders Ranges, where half the country's wine is produced. The vineyards were first planted in 1842 by English and German immigrants. Today, the Barossa boasts a rich European culture with German and English-style villages, churches and chateaux. The largest town in the Valley is Angaston, 100 kilometres north-east of Adelaide, an English burgh with many beautiful old homes, and public building constructed of locally quarried marble. Of all the Barossa towns, Tanunda has the greatest German influence, its Lutheran churches and many German shops and signs intact. Numerous famous wineries are open to visitors, and local restaurants specialise in regional foods while butchers and bakers offer the traditional wursts, breads and cakes of the early settlers.

barra—barramundi.

Barraba—a pastoral centre on the Manilla River, supported by the production of wool. The town is situated adjacent to the Nandewar Range, and Mount Kaputar is accessed by the Barraba Track, about 50km to the west. The first squatter to take up land in the district named his holding Barraba, a Kamilaroi word of debated meaning ('camping place on the bank of a river', or 'place of many yellow box trees'). In 1840, when other squatters began to arrive, the property name was registered. The future townsite of same name was surveyed in 1852. Barraba is located 90km north of Tamworth, on 'Fossickers' Way' in NSW.

barrack (for)—to provide enthusiastic and (often) voluble support: e.g. He barracks for his footy home-team.

barrack-room lawyer—bush lawyer.

barracouta—a long, slender fish, Thyrsites atun, usually found in southern oceans.

barrage—a construction across the mouth of a river that prevents the entry of seawater. Behind a barrage, the water is fresh.

barramundiLates calcarifer, a fish with has a very extensive range in tropical and semi-tropical areas of the Indo-Pacific. A large fish that makes for good eating, it is considered by many to be the premier freshwater/estuarine angling species in Northern Australia. It is found in a wide variety of habitats—rivers, creeks and mangrove estuaries in clear to turbid water. It is most common in rivers and creeks with large catchments and a slow, continuous flow and water temperatures above 20°C. Also known as barra, silver barramundi, giant perch, Palmer perch.

Barranyi (North Island) National Park—a 541ha park within the Sir Edward Pellew group of islands, 15 nautical miles from the McArthur River estuary. The island features long, sandy beaches and excellent fishing. The beaches are nesting sites for turtles, and many birds use the island as a resting point during migration. The island is also the traditional home of the Yanyuwa people, and the park plays an important role in the protection and preservation of their culture and traditions. Travellers wishing to visit the park should contact the Northern Territory Parks and Wildlife staff at the Borroloola Office. Visitors to Barranyi do not require a permit but are restricted from entering some areas of the island. The NT Parks and Wildlife Commission manage the park on behalf of the Yanyuwa people under a leaseback arrangement. The Commission manages the area in conjunction with a local management committee on which the traditional owners and the local residents are represented.

barrel—defeat; beat in a contest; physically beat or knock down.

barrel of fat—(rhyming slang) hat.

Barren Grounds—a low range of rugged, coastal hills in Western Australia. The Barrens are composed of quartzites; the tilted and folded rock beds were once layers of sand deposited on the sea floor. They were subsequently compressed, heated and uplifted by movements of the Earth's crust during the rift from Antarctica. At one stage, the Australian continent twisted so that the accumulation of sediments was compressed between Antarctica to the south and the mass of granite to the north. It was this pressure that pushed up the Barrens. Located within the Fitzgerald National Park.

Barren Grounds Nature Reserve—a hanging swamp, this plateau on top of Jamberoo Mountain is located on one of the most southerly plateaux of the Sydney Basin. Surrounding the reserve is an escarpment of Hawkesbury sandstone approximately 230-250 million years old, which forms the bedrock of the reserve. The reserve contains a wide variety of habitats including heath, woodland and tall forest. Barren Grounds is home to a diverse array of wildlife including the threatened eastern bristlebird, ground parrot, giant burrowing frog and long-nosed potoroo. The reserve has been a protected area for over 40 years and boasts more than 500 species of plants. Excellent bushwalking giving walkers fantastic views of the Illawarra coastline and surrounding countryside. University research site for plant and animal ecology and fire ecology. Located on top of Jamberoo Mountain in Illawarra, New South Wales.

Barrens—(the...) a low range of rugged, coastal hills within the Fitzgerald National Park in Western Australia. These hills support plant life found nowhere else in the world. The Barrens are composed of quartzites; the tilted and folded rock beds, like those seen at East Mount Barren, were once layers of sand deposited on the sea floor. They were subsequently compressed, heated and uplifted by movements of the Earth's crust during the rift from Antarctica. At one stage, the Australian continent twisted so that the accumulation of sediments was compressed between Antarctica to the south and the mass of granite to the north. It was this pressure that pushed up the Barrens. Much more recently, a mere 40 million years or so ago, the Barrens formed a series of offshore islands into which the ocean waves have cut a platform. This platform makes a shelf from which there is a pleasant mountain climb to the top. It starts at a long boardwalk, constructed to protect the vegetation from the feet of nature-lovers.

Barrens clawflowerCalothamnus validus has flowers resembling claws. Occurring only in the locality of the Barrens, this is but one in a wide variation of the Myrtaceae family found in the south-west of Australia.

Barrier Fence—No 1 Rabbit Proof Fence, also known as State Barrier Fence, stretches 1822km from Starvation Harbour in the south to Wallal near Port Hedland in the north. The fence was constructed in 1901 to 1907 to keep out rabbits and other vermin.

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