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Bogong High Plains

Bogong High Plains
By Benjamint444, edited by Fir0002 (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Bogong High Plains—a section of the Alpine National Park, Victoria, situated south of Mount Bogong. This area forms part of Australia's Great Dividing Range and in winter is one of the largest snow-covered areas in the country. The area was first settled and explored by graziers seeking pastoral land, mainly for cattle. The area is home to a component of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), which investigates aspects of global climate change. This area is prone to bushfires because of the large amount of native forest. The 2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires devastated much of the areas of forest. Many well-known huts were destroyed. More recently the area was again threatened during the 2006-07 Australian bushfire season but due to good luck regarding the weather, damage appears to be minimal in comparison. The area was first settled and explored by graziers seeking pastoral land mainly for cattle. The biggest early development for the area was the Kiewa Hydroelectric Scheme which began construction in the 1940s. Two dams were constructed, Pretty Valley Pondage and Rocky Valley Dam, and a series of aqueducts built to capture streams and bring their flows across into the catchments of the Kiewa Scheme. McKay Creek and West Kiewa Power Stations supply most of the electricity generated. Since completion of the Scheme, the area has become much more based around tourism, particularly skiing.

Bogong mothsAgrotis infusa, a prolifically breeding moth whose main breeding ground is the pasture land west of the Great Dividing Range. However, during summer, high temperatures make the plains unfavourable for the bogongs. The adults that emerge in spring migrate 3,000km to the Australian Alps, where they collect in the cool of caves and rock crevices, remaining inactive during the hot summer months. The name "bogong" is said to derive from an Aboriginal word meaning "high plains". In the mountains, they aestivate, waiting in caves and crevices until the autumn. This period of aestivation provides a rich source of bush tucker, once bringing together members of various tribes for bogong feasts. In the autumn, the moths return to the plains to mate and lay their eggs. The adults emerge about four weeks later, varying in colour from light brown to almost black. However, all bogongs have characteristic marks on each fore wing: namely a dark, arrow-marked streak, broken by one round pale spot and one comma-shaped spot. The hind wings are light brown with a darker border. The moth has a wingspan of about 5cm, and at rest holds its wings like a tent over its body.

bogong feast—from the time of the Dreaming, the high country of Victoria has been a meeting place of peace, feasting and good sport. The Aborigines of north-east Victoria would congregate after the spring thaw on the banks of the Murray River at Mungabareena ('the gathering place'), or Albury. At the end of November, the healthiest in these clans made this annual journey, while the elderly and babies stayed behind. Six of the seven clans met, the seventh, Minjamurra the Echidna stayed behind on their own lands. Problems were sorted out, marriages confirmed and new plans made. Spears were laid down and the tribe from Mount Beauty, the Ya-itma, led the way to the high plains for the annual bogong moth feast. During the collection of the moths, important ceremonies were held, art was painted in rock shelters and goods traded. Bogong moths were regarded as an essential food item for Aboriginal people and were a rich source of fat and protein. They were easily collected by Aboriginal people with sticks and sheets of bark. The moths were cooked in sand and hot ashes to remove their wings and legs, or mashed and roasted into rock cakes. It is said that they taste a bit like peanut butter.

bogyman—evil spirit fabricated to frighten children.

boil the billy—the term billy or billycan is particularly associated with Australian usage, but is also used in the and Ireland. It is widely accepted that the term "billycan" is derived from the large cans used for transporting bouilli or bully beef on Australia-bound ships or during exploration of the outback, which after use were modified for boiling water over a fire; however, there is a suggestion that the word may be associated with the Aboriginal billa (meaning water). In Australia, the billy has come to symbolise the spirit of exploration of the outback. To boil the billy most often means to make tea. "Billy Tea" is the name of a popular brand of tea long sold in Australian grocers and supermarkets. Billies feature in many of Henry Lawson's stories and poems. Banjo Paterson's most famous of many references to the billy is surely in the first verse and chorus of Waltzing Matilda: "And he sang as he watched and waited 'til his billy boiled..."

boiled shirt—1. a dress shirt with a starched front. 2. a socially stiff man.

boiled sweet—a sweet made of boiled sugar.

boiler—an aged fowl; too tough for roasting, it requires boiling to tenderise the meat.

Boilermakers case—R v. Kirby and others; ex parte the Boilermakers' Society of Australia, 1955-1956. A landmark case in which the High Court ruled it unconstitutional for an arbitral body (i.e., the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration) to be vested with both arbitral and judicial powers, because of the Constitution’s separation of legislative and judicial powers. As a result, the Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1904 was amended to establish two separate bodies, the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission and the Commonwealth Industrial Court.

boilover—1. (horse racing) the unexpected defeat of a hot favourite; a surprise result. 2. any unexpected result in any context.

boko—beak; hooter; conk: nose.

bold as brass—impudent; forward in manner.

Bolivia Hill boronia—a shrub which grows to 2.5m high. The dark green leaves are divided into 5-9 leaflets which are 4-8mm long. They are covered by a scattering of short hairs on the upper surface. The branches are covered in fine yellow hairs. The deep pink flower clusters, which occur from spring through to summer, are held at the base of the leaves. Bolivia Hill boronia is known only from Bolivia Hill Nature Reserve, south of Tenterfield, NSW. The population was estimated at some 1000 mature plants in 1999 but has decreased subtantially during the past decade. Flowering occurs from September to October, with a longevity of about 15 years. It grows in dry sclerophyll forest amongst granite boulders and heathland on shallow soil in the cracks of granite outcrops. Associated species in heath habitats include Acacia adunca, Acacia pycnostachya, Leptospermum microcarpum, Leptospermum brevipes, Notelaea linearis, Boronia anethifolia and Kunzea bracteolata. Dry sclerophyll forest vegetation comprises Eucalyptus prava, Eucalyptus andrewsii and Callitris endlicheri.

bollocks!—retort to an obvious attempt at deception: equivalent of bulldust.

bollocky—nude, naked.

bolt it in—win by a large margin.

bolter—an outsider who unexpectedly wins, especially in horse-racing.

bomber—parking officer who records parking infringements.

bombora—a submerged reef (from the Aboriginal).

Bonaparte Basin—the Cambrian to recent Bonaparte Basin is a large, mainly offshore petroleum-producing basin on the north-western Australian multiple-rifted margin. It contains up to 15km of marine-fluvial siliciclastic and carbonate sediments.

Bond, Alan—Bondie, as he was affectionately known in Australia, was one of the country’s most colourful entrepreneurs. He began his business career as a sign-writer, made a small fortune on property deals, and then became one of the foremost Australian corporate raiders of the extravagant 1980s—a time of financial deregulation and easy credit. In 1983 he became a national hero by winning the America’s Cup for Australia with the 8m yacht Australia II. Two years later, he bought into the beer industry, taking on huge debt. In the early 1990s the Bond empire began to collapse as the bankers began to call in the huge loans which could not be serviced. However, his real undoing had to do with Van Gogh’s Blue Irises, which he'd bought in 1987 for US$49 million—just 3 three weeks after the October 1987 stock market crash. In 1990 he was convicted of selling the painting and diverting the money to a personal company when in fact the painting was the property of a publicly listed company.

Bondi Beach—a popular beach and the name of the surrounding suburb in Sydney, NSW. Bondi Beach is located 7km east of the Sydney CBD, in the Eastern Suburbs. "Bondi" or "Boondi" is an Aboriginal word meaning water breaking over rocks or noise of water breaking over rocks. The Australian Museum records that Bondi means place where a flight of nullas took place. In 1809, the road builder William Roberts received a grant of land in the area. In 1851, Edward Smith Hall and Francis O'Brien purchased 200 acres (0.81 km2) of the Bondi area that included most of the beach frontage, which was named the "The Bondi Estate." Hall was O'Brien's father-in-law. Between 1855 and 1877 O'Brien purchased his father-in-law's share of the land, renamed the land the "O'Brien Estate," and made the beach and the surrounding land available to the public as a picnic ground and amusement resort. As the beach became increasingly popular, O'Brien threatened to stop public beach access. However, the Municipal Council believed that the Government needed to intervene to make the beach a public reserve. On 9 June 1882, the Bondi Beach became a public beach.[citation needed] On 6 February 1938, five people drowned and over 250 people were rescued or resuscitated after a series of large waves struck the beach and pulled people back into the sea, a day that became known as "Black Sunday".[4] Bondi Beach was a working class suburb throughout most of the twentieth century with migrant people from New Zealand comprising the majority of the local population. Following World War II, Bondi Beach and the Eastern Suburbs became home for Jewish migrants from Poland, Russia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Germany. A stream of Jewish immigration continued into the 21st century and the area has a number of synagogues and a kosher butcher. The area today is very multicultural with a lot of new wealthy Asian families and Samoans. The multicultural migration funded and drove the growth of the suburb throughout the 90's into the turn of the century,[5] moving it steadily from its working class roots towards upper/middle class enclave[6] similar to its neighbors of Rose Bay and Bellevue Hill which was listed as the most expensive postcode in the country in 2003, 2004, 2005.[7][8] Bondi Beach was long a centre for efforts to fight indecency in beach attire. The beach was a focal point of the 1907 Sydney bathing costume protests, organized to oppose proposed dress standards for beachgoers. The Local Government Act, Ordinance No. 52 (1935)[9] governed the decency of swimming costumes and was in force between 1935 and 1961, and resulted in public controversy as the two-piece "bikini" became popular after World War II. Waverley Council's beach inspectors, including the legendary Aub Laidlaw, were responsible for enforcing the law and were required to measure the dimensions of swimwear and order offenders against public decency off the beach. While vacationing in Australia during 1951, American movie actress Jean Parker made international headlines when she was escorted off the beach after Laidlaw determined her bikini was too skimpy.[10] The rule became increasingly anachronistic during the 1950s and was replaced in 1961 with one requiring bathers be "clad in a proper and adequate bathing costume", allowing for more subjective judgement of decency. By the 1980s topless bathing had become common at Bondi Beach, especially at the southern end.[11] Sydney's Water Board maintained an untreated sewage outlet not far from the north end of the beach which was closed in the mid-1990s when a deep water ocean outfall was completed. Bondi Beach is about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) long and receives many visitors throughout the year. Surf Life Saving Australia has given different hazard ratings to Bondi Beach in 2004. While the northern end has been rated a gentle 4 (with 10 as the most hazardous), the southern side is rated as a 7 due to a famous rip current known as the "Backpackers' Express" because of its proximity to the bus stop, and the unwillingness of tourists to walk the length of the beach to safer swimming. The south end of the beach is generally reserved for surfboard riding. Yellow and red flags define safe swimming areas, and visitors are advised to swim between them.[12] There is an underwater shark net shared, during the summer months, with other beaches along the southern part of the coast. Pods of whales and dolphins have been sighted in the bay during the months of migration. Fairy penguins, while uncommon, are sometimes also seen swimming close to shore or amongst surfers in southern line-up. In 2007, the Guinness World Record for the largest swimsuit photo shoot was set at Bondi Beach, with 1,010 women wearing bikinis taking part.[13] Bondi Beach was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008.[14] Roughly a kilometre in length, the beach is enclosed at the north and south by headlands, and patrolled daily by volunteer members of the Bondi Surf Lifesaving Club.

Bondi Surf Bathers' Life Saving Club—officially recognised as the oldest surf life saving club in the world. It is an Australian icon and holds an indelible position in Australian history. The primary objective of surf life saving was—and is—to protect the bathers who frequent our beaches through manned patrols and associated services. The Bondi Surf Bathers' Life Saving Club was established on the 21st February 1907 by a group of like-minded bathers. The club was responsible for introducing surf life saving to Australia and pioneered the famous surf reel and line. The moment that thrust Bondi and surf life saving into the public arena was Sunday, 6th February 1938. Thirty-one years after the club was founded Bondi members performed over 300 rescues after hundreds of swimmers were swept out to sea by a series of large waves. At the end of the day five lives had been lost and the occasion was forever etched into Australian history as 'Black Sunday'. Other important milestones in the club's history include the development and introduction of duty rosters, test swims and the Bronze Medallion, which is still the basic qualification for lifesavers. Bondi leads the country in the number of rescues performed. They are at the forefront of new technology in the lifesaving field, including inflatable rescue boats, jet ski rescue craft and automatic external defibrillators.

boned out—exhausted.

boneseedChrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera. The flowers of boneseed are unusual among sunflowers because the ray flower ovaries develop into an enlarged berry-like fruit, each containing a very hard, bony seed. Up to 2500 seeds per square meter have been recorded beneath established colonies. Boneseed and the closely-related bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundifolia) were imported into Australia as ornamentals in the 1850s. They may have also been introduced unintentionally in a ballast dump from a South African ship. Boneseed and bitou bush are now two of Australia's most widespread and damaging environmental weeds. Several insect species have been introduced for biological control, including the soft shoot tip moth and boneseed beetles of the genus Chrysolina. This shrub has become a serious naturalized weed in Australia, forming massive thickets in all southern Australian states.

Bongil Bongil National Park—situated on the New South Wales coast, this park protects pristine beaches and a significant array of habitats, including some regionally important wetlands and littoral rainforest. Much of the surrounding wet sclerophyll forest and littoral rainforest area was cleared and reforested as commercial plantation sites. Lack of biodiversity failed to provide a range of habitats for native fauna, which resulted in an overall degradation to the area. Rehabilitation techniques are now being trialed, including replantation with native flora. The park's recreational features include beaches and estuaries as well as two creeks for exploration by canoe. There is also an easy walking trail from Tuckers Rocks. The park is located 12 km south of Coffs Harbour on the NSW mid-north coast.

bonk—to have sexual intercourse.

bonkers—crazy; mad; insane.

Bonner, Neville—Australia's first Aboriginal senator, sworn in on 17 August 1971. "For the first time in the history of this country there was an aboriginal voice in the parliament and that gave me an enormous feeling of overwhelming responsibility. I made people aware, the lawmakers in this country, I made them aware of indigenous people. I think that was an achievement." For twelve years Senator Bonner represented his people, and helped to change the face of Aboriginal rights in Australia. Always an honest and gentle man, he never let anger dominate his personality.

bonnet—the hood of a vehicle.

Bonney, Charles—in 1839, with ten drovers and 300 cattle, made the first overland journey from the Port Phillip District by way of Mount Gambier and the Coorong. This opened up a faster and safer route for stock than the Murray River, and drew attention to the grazing potential of the South-East, a reputation reinforced shortly afterwards by a journey by Governor George Grey and his party.

bonzer—a general term of approval. As for its origin: its starting point (“perhaps” says the Australian National Dictionary) is the French word for “good”, bon. By the late 19th century this was made more emphatic by being turned into the colloquial word “bonster”. And this, in turn, developed into the rather easier-to-say bonzer – perhaps influenced by the Mexican-American word “bonanza”. Until Word War II bonzer was a powerful word in Aussie English.

Booberra Lagoon—a permanent body of water situated in the McIntyre river, west of Boggabilla. Boobera Lagoon is said to be one of the most significant cultural sites in south-eastern Australia. The Gamilaray people believe that Boobera Lagoon is the resting place for the spiritual creature, Garriya, often translated as the Rainbow Serpent. According to Aboriginal law, the lagoon is a dangerous and powerful place, and people are warned against going into or near the water or staying at the lagoon after dark. Boobera Lagoon was the site for the third (and final) stage of an intricate male initiation bora ceremony. It is estimated that there are as many as several million stone artifacts to be found in the area. The area has also been identified as an important source of food and medicines, with twelve plant food species and four medicinal plant species in the area. The area was also an important source of animal foods, with species such as golden perch, kangaroo and emu frequenting the water hole. Boobera Lagoon has been the centre of local controversy for many years now as the wider community debates the most appropriate us of the area. The Gamillaray people wish to see the area set aside as a significant cultural site, while recreational water users, irrigators and stockmen feel that the area should be available for full public use. Currently, there is a total ban on all motorised water sports on Boobera Lagoon.

boobialla—any of several plants of the genus Myoporum, with pale flowers and globular, often purplish, fruits. Important species include: M. insulare, coast boobialla, with smooth waxy leaves that render it both salt-tolerant and fire-resistant. The scented white leaves are dusted with purple and its large purple fruits are an important food; M. deserti, the Ellangowan poison bush, often fatal to stock; M. parviflorum, creeping boobiala, a dense groundcover which is being trialed around housing for its ability to slow down or interrupt the spread of bushfire. All boobialas are hardy in dry conditions.

boobook owlNinox boobook, the smallest, most widespread and best-known owl in Australia. Their habitat includes almost anywhere there are trees, excluding dense rainforest. Boobooks have a two-syllable hoot, with the second note pitched lower than the first, that sounds like "boobook" or "mopoke". Their characteristic two-note call is repeated about 20 times per minute, sometimes for hours on end. Because their call is similar to that of the European cuckoo, early settlers thought that Australian cuckoos called at night. Because of their nocturnal habits, southern boobooks are not often seen, although they frequently visit suburban areas. They hunt small birds, nocturnal lizards such as geckos, house mice and other small mammals, as well as night-flying beetles and moths. These nocturnal birds are most active just after dusk and just before sunrise. Also known as mopoke, spotted owl, gurgurda (Nyoongar name).

booby—common name for some members of the family Sulidae, large, streamlined sea birds. Tropical and subtropical members of the family are called boobies; those of northern waters are called gannets. Gannets have strong migration tendencies, while the boobies do not. The world's largest booby bird is the endangered Abbot's booby, the entire population of which lives on Christmas Island.

Booderee Botanic Gardens—an annex of the Australian National Botanic Gardens established in 1951. Its purpose was to provide frost-free growing conditions for plants unsuited to Canberra's climate. In 2000, the Gardens were proclaimed as part of the Booderee National Park, and the current focus of the park is regional flora and Koori traditional plant use. The base rock of the gardens is sandstone, although much of the site is covered with old sand dunes. Sandstone outcrops, swamplands and wet gullies are a common part of the landscape. Lake McKenzie is a naturally occurring lake in which decaying vegetation turns the water dark brown. Sunlight cannot penetrate far into the waters and the lake is very cold. It supports fish and large numbers of long-necked turtles. The Gardens are 80ha in area, including both natural vegetation and the cultivated sections surrounding Lake McKenzie. Most of the plants in the gardens are propagated from cuttings collected in the wild. The Booderee Botanic Gardens have a small nursery to propagate plants for use both in the Gardens and the Park.

Booderee (Jervis Bay) National Parkbooderee, in the Dhurga language of the region, means 'plentiful bay'. It is the name chosen by the Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community for the former Jervis Bay National Park and Jervis Bay Botanic Gardens, following the handback of these areas to the traditional owners. Booderee Botanic Gardens are the only Aboriginal-owned botanic gardens in Australia. The gardens are becoming a centre for interpreting plant uses by local Aboriginal people.

boodie rat—(see: burrowing bettong).

Boodjamulla (Lawn Hill) National Park—one of Queensland's largest and most remote parks, distinguished by spectacular gorges and an ancient riverine vegetation. Freshwater springs rise spontaneously from the western sandstone plateau, providing a habitat for species of freshwater fish. Other animals of interest include the freshwater crocodile and the northern snapping turtle, wallaroos and miniature bats. Some parts of the park have remnant rainforest, and large fossil deposits exist in some sections of the sedimentary sandstone rock. Aboriginal rock paintings can be found throughout the area. Bushwalking is a popular pastime here but can be dangerous around some of the gorges. Canoe hire is available and is a great way to explore the gorges and do some bird watching. Camping is permitted in the park at Lawn Hill Creek, but permits must be obtained prior to camping. Permanent rangers are stationed within the park to assist if you get into trouble. The last 300km from Mount Isa to the park is unsealed. The park is difficult to get to without a 4WD, and the roads are impassable after heavy rain. Located in Wakaya country between Burketown and Camooweal, Mount Isa.

boodle—money: e.g., That new bloke Suze is dating has oodles of boodle.

boofhead—1. a stupid person; fool. 2. person or animal with a large head. 3. A cartoon character appearing during the 1940s in the Sydney Daily Mirror.

boogie-man—evil spirit fabricated to scare children.

book (something) up—obtain on credit.

bookie—a person registered and licensed by the controlling body to bet with the public at licensed racing meetings held within its jurisdiction.

Bookmark Biosphere Reserve—protects one of the largest remaining continuous stands of ancient mallee left in the world. Over 80% of Australia's mallee has been cleared and what remains is largely in fragmented parcels. Because of this, Bookmark provides habitat to a number of rare and endangered species, some of which are no longer found anywhere else on earth. Bookmark also includes working sheep stations, orchards and vineyards striving to implement 'best practice'. A number of new industries also occur at Bookmark, such as native floriculture and sustainable nature-based tourism. Bookmark has been recognised internationally as a world leader among biosphere reserves for its efforts in community involvement and ecologically sustainable development.

Booligal wetlands—a series of low channels near the Lachlan River. Lignum bushes and river red gum, black box and river cooba surround the creeks and channels. Several areas near the creeks keep water after the creeks cease to flow, supporting river red gum. The Booligal wetlands are famous for the large number of waterbirds that gather in the area.

boomer—a large male kangaroo; from the booming sound made by his feet as he bounds along. Also, amongst the western greys, the boss kangaroo warns his mob of impending danger by hammering his feet on the ground.

boomerang—1. a sickle-shaped throwing stick with arms slightly curved in opposite directions, as in a propeller. It is used only for sport, and is both designed and thrown in such a way that it returns to the thrower. Through European misuse of the word, it has come to be applied to either the sporting variety or the hunting variety of throwing stick. The larger, heavier hunting stick used for hunting and warfare does not return. The returning boomerang was unknown to Aboriginal peoples in most of the Northern Territory, all of Tasmania, half of South Australia and the northern parts of Queensland and Western Australia. Roughly 60% of Aboriginal peoples used both returning boomerangs and non-returning hunting sticks, and therefore had words for them; a further 10% had only non-returning hunting sticks, and the remaining 30% used neither. The oldest known boomerangs are ten thousand years old. 2. dishonoured cheque. 3. an object that is expected to be returned to the owner by the borrower.

boomerang clapstick—(see: clapstick).

Boondall Wetlands—a protected area of 730ha located within suburban Brisbane. The mudflats were formed very recently in geological time, from sediments deposited from the Brisbane River and reworked by the tides. Thousands of migratory wading birds, such as the eastern curlew, arrive for the summer. The substrate and shelter provided by mangroves are important to many other marine organisms. Mangroves provide directly for mangrove snails, and nutrients from their fallen leaves provide the base for inshore food chains of many fish and crustaceans, such as the mud crab. The area was once occupied by the Turrbul tribe, but due to its reputation as a mosquito-infested swamp, it was never settled by Europeans. Located in south-east Queensland, Boondall is now a Ramsar site.

Boonerwrung—the ancestors of the Boonerwrung people were among the Victorian coastal groups. They were linked with Tasmania but were disconnected by the rising seas that turned once-fertile plains into Port Phillip and Westernport Bays, including the Mornington Peninsula. Some of Tasmania's Palawa peoples have Boonerwrung ancestry. Along the coastline near Black Rock and Beaumaris, a number of natural wells that once provided fresh water to the Boonerwrung can be found. A famed ancestor of the Boonerwrung is Derrimut. A Boonerwrung elder, Derrimut was honoured by the early settlers of Melbourne for informing them of an impending attack by the Woiwurrung group. The two moiety totems of the Boonerwrung people are Bunjil the Eaglehawk and Waang the Crow.

boongary—(see: Lumholtz tree-kangaroo).

Boonoo Boonoo National Park—the park's name (pronounced 'bunna bunoo') derives from a local Aboriginal term for big rocks. Located on high granite country in the New England Tableland of New South Wales, the park is strewn with boulders and covered with open forest. The landscape along the river, which meanders through the area, includes great stretches of land dotted with tea trees, large pools with sandy banks lined with cypress pine, and randomly placed granite boulders. Riverside vegetation includes banksias, melaleucas, grevillea, callitris, leptospermum and callistemon. The park's most outstanding feature is the Boonoo Boonoo waterfall, which cascades a spectacular 210-metre drop to the rainforest-filled gorge below.

Boorabin National Park—situated along the Great Western Road, halfway between Southern Cross and Coolgardie, in Western Australia's eastern goldfields. The species-rich kwongan heaths of south-western Australia reach their easterly limit here, growing in deep, sandy soils that were produced by erosion during the Tertiary period, some 50 million years ago. The park takes its name from the former Boorabin townsite, a settlement established in 1898 to provide water for steam locomotives going to and from the goldfields. Boorabin is the Aboriginal name of a rock that lies on the edge of the park.

boot—the trunk of a vehicle.

Booti Booti National Park—protects areas of rainforest, heath, sand dunes and wetlands, and is a haven for birds, especially sea birds. The Booti Hill walking track is a 3km, white sandy path leading to the lake through a treeless, wind-swept expanse. In springtime, this area is an expanse of myriad varieties of wildflowers visited by thirty-five recorded species of butterfly. The Park also protects several Aboriginal middens and a rock tool area. To the west is Lake Wallis, and to the east is the Pacific Ocean.

Booing—a village located between Byron Bay and Lis more on the north coast of New South Wales, and the sub-tropical rainforest remnant located nearby. The rainforest has been degraded by numerous weed species that have infested the area.

booze bus—a police van equipped to test drivers for their alcohol levels.

boozer—a pub or nightclub.

bora—an initiation ceremony at which an Aboriginal youth is admitted to the privileges and responsibilities of manhood. Both girls and boys had to pass through an initiation ceremony, but by far the most exacting and important was the bora ceremony for the young men of the tribe. A boy's childhood was carefree, but once he passed through the bora ring, he had to accept all the responsibilities of manhood. The initiation ceremonies varied from tribe to tribe and few details are known. The knocking out of teeth, circumcision and scarring of parts of the body constituted some of the tests that had to be passed by young men. The ceremony, from which women are excluded, is secret: revelation of anything relating to the bora is an infraction that was punishable by death.

bora ring—a raised, circular platform of beaten earth used by Aborigines for ceremonial occasions. This was the stage for one of the most important ceremonies of Aboriginal culture. It was here that young men were initiated into the tribal laws and customs that formed the basis of their way of life. The country in which they lived was harsh and the laws that were imposed upon the men and women of the tribe ensured them continuing survival in this environment. Bora rings are the only remains of the ceremonial and religious life of native Australians before European colon is at ion.

Border Fence—the 584km stretch of the Dingo Fence that crosses New South Wales.

border/Marino crossbreed—in terms of sheer weight of numbers, the second most populous breed of sheep in this country comprises the ewe progeny from border Leicester rams mated to merino ewes. The border/merino ewes produced in this way offer the greatest overall performance when breeding sheep for meat, with well proportioned carcass, high fertility, robust constitution and good milk production (important in promoting rapid growth in their lambs). Additionally, its fleece yields a fine crossbred wool which, although not as heavy or valuable as that of the pure merino, is still an important contributor to overall financial returns from these sheep. Of the lambs slaughtered for meat in Australia, the vast majority of these would have been bred in the above manner.

Border Police—created in 1839 to limit conflict between squatters and Aborigines, enforce the Crown Lands Act 1836 and to eliminate illegal runs. They served under direction of the Commissioners of Crown Lands, policing the remote 'squatting districts'. The Act provided for licences to be issued to depasture sheep and cattle on unoccupied Crown lands, and originally commissioners were appointed to police these regulations. Three unsuccessful years later, the Border Police was established to carry out this function. Expenses were met out of the squatters' fees on the stock rates.

Border Ranges National Park—a World Heritage rainforest park on the rim of a vast, ancient volcano. The park is divided into three sections that together occupy over 30,000ha: Tweed Range, central and western. The central section is accessed from Kyogle and can be used as a scenic route to Brisbane via Rathdowney; the western section is advisable only for experienced bushwalkers; the eastern Tweed Range section offers the easiest access and the most varied experience. Together with the McPherson Ranges, the Springbrook Plateau and the Nightcap National Park, the Border Ranges National Park contains part of the caldera of the Mount Warning shield volcano.

bore—a narrow, lined hole that is drilled to withdraw groundwater from an aquifer.

bore it up (someone)—verbally attack, criticise (someone) severely.

boreeAcacia pendula, a tree that can be lopped for cattle fodder during drought. Endemic to major river floodplains and the Riverine Plain; sometimes as the dominant species on heavy clay soil, often in large stands. The tree is suitable for fire-prone areas, and improves soil fertility through 'fixing' the nitrogen content, but is prone to infestation by the bag-shelter moth.

boree woodlands—occur on clay soils and transitional red-brown earths. The structure varies from shrubby (often saltbush species) to open grassy woodland with a diversity of native trees, shrubs and grasses. Boree is much reduced from its pre-European settlement range.

borer—any destructive, wood-eating insect.

boronia—a genus of about 90-100 species of evergreen shrubs of the tribe Boronieae in the family Rutaceae. They are found all over Australia. Boronias generally grow in open forests and woodlands. They are only rarely found in rainforests or arid areas, though some unusual species have recently been described from the north-west of Western Australia. The genus was first described by James Edward Smith in 1798. The species once described as genus Cyanothamnus by John Lindley in A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony was later given to a section of the same name in this genus. Boronias are known for their perfumed flowers, especially B. megastigma. Unfortunately, they are generally somewhat difficult to grow in cultivation. All species require excellent drainage and part shade.

Borroloola—an area of early pastoral settlement within the Barkly Tablelands. By the turn of the century, drovers herding cattle between the Kimberleys and western Queensland stopped in the town, and a trade in rum (smuggled from Thursday Island) was established. Now, the community’s economic base depends upon tourism and the needs of the surrounding cattle stations. With a population of nearly 800 (about 200 whites and 600 Aborigines), Borroloola is home to a number of diverse Aboriginal cultures. The local Aborigines live in camps around the town. Located 954km south-east of Darwin in the Northern Territory.

bosh!—nonsense, rubbish!

bosker—excellent; very good; pleasing.

boss over the board—1. the overseer of a shearing gang. 2. (cap.) a humorous short story by Henry Lawson.

boss-cocky—a derogatory term for someone who assumes an unearned air of authority, or one who struts his authority: e.g., Look out, here comes boss-cocky.

boss-eyed—1.having only one good eye. 2. cross-eyed.

bot—1. any of various parasitic larvae of flies of the family Oestridae, infesting horses, sheep, etc. 2. a cadger; to cadge.

Botany Bay—an inlet on the Tasman Sea in south-east Australia, located south of Sydney Harbour. The moderately large, low coastal indentation was an early English whaling site. Later, this was also the site of the two earliest landings by European explorers on the east coast of Australia. In 1770 the English explorer, James Cook, landed on the southern side of the bay at Kurnell. In 1788 the Frenchman, comte de Lapérouse, landed on the northern side at La Perouse, just six days after the arrival of the First Fleet. The bay opens to sea through heads of sandstone, and contains important wetland habitats. The heads are of the same sandstone that runs north and south from Sydney along the central coast of NSW. These headlands contain national parks and important historical sites, including Captain Cook's landing place. Around the inner shores of the bay are sandy shores and mud flats. Some of the tidal areas on the bay's southern side form aquatic reserves. Behind these are found the residential suburbs of Sydney. Much of the shore has been modified for industrial and transportation purposes. Shipping facilities and Sydney Airport runways are located on reclaimed land that projects into original parts of the bay.

Botany Bay National Park—site of two of the earliest landings by European explorers on the east coast of Australia. In 1770 the English explorer, James Cook, landed on the southern side of the bay at Kurnell. In 1788 the Frenchman, comte de Leprous, landed on the northern side at La Perouse, just six days after the arrival of the First Fleet, under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. The English left Botany Bay and arrived in Sydney Harbour on 26 January 1788. At that time, the Aboriginal people of the Dharawal nation occupied the area that is now Botany Bay National Park. Management of the Park is done in close cooperation with the Aboriginal communities. Aboriginal sites include rock engravings, occupational sites such as middens, burials and axe grinding grooves. All Aboriginal sites are protected under law, and must be left undisturbed.

Botany wool—merino wool, especially that produced in Australia.

botchy—poor; badly done; unsatisfactory; second-rate.

bothy—a hut or other basic lodging, particularly for cattlemen or other labourers.

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