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Australia Decoded
'E-2'


Eora People

The Eora People



en suite—a bathroom leading off a bedroom.

Encounter—the ship in which Captain Matthew Flinders charted the south coast of Terra Australis, as commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks.

Encounter Bay—a coastal feature of eastern SA. The major sand spit, Younghusband Peninsula, encloses the Coorong, an important bird and fish breeding area. This long sand spit forms the eastern, landward edge of much of the bay, which was the meeting place of two great maritime expeditions of discovery, the British one led by Matthew Flinders and the French one led by Nicholas Baudin. The name 'Encounter Bay' (named by Flinders) commemorated this meeting, which resulted in Flinders' imprisonment.

end up in smoke—fail; collapse; be a fiasco, flop.

end up on (one's) ear—finish up in trouble.

endangered species—a species that is in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue; included are species whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that the species are deemed to be in danger of extinction.

Endeavour— Captain James Cook's voyage in the Endeavour, which resulted in the mapping of New Zealand and the east coast of Australia, was an amazing leap into the unknown. According to the British government, who wished to deceive other nations as to its true purpose, it was merely a scientific expedition to observe the transit of the plant Venus across the face of the sun, a measurement which could help to establish the scale of the universe itself. Instead it turned out to be one of the greatest journeys of discovery ever undertaken.

Endeavour River—on Captain James Cook's first Voyage of Discovery in June 1770, he sailed the north Queensland coast aboard the Endeavour. This was not an easy task for the Captain as the Great Barrier Reef is one of the most difficult waterways to navigate. The Endeavour ran aground on a coral reef, sustaining serious damage. The crew managed to get themselves to shore near a river mouth which was later name the Endeavour River in a little place now called Cooktown. Cook and his crew spent nearly two months as the continent's first European settlement, camped on the then-desolate banks of the Endeavour River, exploring the native inhabitants, fauna and flora

endless belt—1. a conveyor belt. 2.a prostitute.

Energy Resources Australia—(ERA) owners of the Jabila uranium mine, Australia's largest uranium producer—and the world's third-largest—accounting for 8-12% of the world's uranium production. ERA supplies uranium to base-load electricity utilities in Japan, Korea, Europe, and North America. Asia is a particularly important market, with most of the company's premium-priced contracts there supplied from Ranger. ERA operates the Ranger and Jabila uranium mines. Twenty per cent of the operational workforce is filled by Aboriginal people.

engine-driver—the driver of an engine, especially a railway locomotive.

Engineers' Case—(1920) a landmark High Court case, in which the authority of the federal arbitration court over state arbitration courts was established. An immediate consequence was a dramatic shift in the Commonwealth industrial jurisdiction. In 1920, 670,000 unionists worked under state awards, while only 100,000 worked under Commonwealth awards. By 1924 the comparable figures were 225,000 under state awards, and 550,000 under Commonwealth awards. Although some unions moved back and forth between jurisdictions, it is clear that the Commonwealth had made substantial inroads into state authority in industrial relations. This case had wide significance, as the High Court had rejected the implied limits on Commonwealth power that earlier decisions had drawn from the Constitution, and held that the powers should be given their literal, full effect. This overturned the 'implied immunities' and 'reserve powers' that advantaged the states, and after this case Australian federalism became a centralist model. And the Commonwealth's control of trade and commerce, external affairs, industrial disputes, corporations and defence was greatly enhance.

English/British Monarchy—the oldest institution of government in the United Kingdom, dating back over ten centuries. The English and Scottish crowns were separate until 1603. Following the accession of King James VI of Scotland to the English throne (becoming King James I of England), a single monarch reigned in the United Kingdom. From the end of the 17th century, monarchs lost executive power and they increasingly became subject to Parliament, resulting in today's constitutional monarchy.

enough to drive one round the twist—expression of utter frustration over something that is intolerable.

enough to try the patience of Job—(see: enough to drive one round the twist).

ENSO—(see: El Niño-Southern Oscillation.)

enterprise agreement—a wages-and-conditions agreement struck between an individual company and its workers (though each has to be ratified by the Industrial Relations Commission). The enterprise agreement must be agreed to by a majority of employees involved and then it lasts for a fixed term, normally a few years. An enterprise agreement usually improves pay rates and working hours in return for employee commitments to increase their productivity. An enterprise agreement replaces the Award in the enterprise concerned.

enterprise bargaining—a method by which workers negotiate their conditions directly with individual companies or single industries; the bargaining or negotiation of the terms and conditions of employment between employers and employees or their respective representatives at the enterprise level. Industrial relations are now more amenable to enterprise bargaining, through the introduction of the ‘individual contract’. The term ‘enterprise bargaining’ was first used in a 1993 amendment to the Industrial Relations Act of 1988.

enterprise union—a worker's union created by and for the exclusive representation of employees from a single enterprise or company.

Entry Permit to Enter Aboriginal Land—(see: land entry permit).

Envirofund—the local action component of the Australian government's $3 billion Natural Heritage Trust. Envirofund helps communities to undertake local projects aimed at conserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable resource use. Community groups and individuals can apply for grants of up to $30,000 to carry out on-ground and other actions to target local problems. Grants of up to $50,000 will be considered where the magnitude, complexity or public benefit of the project is such that additional funding would be beneficial

Environment Australia—a part of the Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage. Environment Australia interacts and works with Indigenous Australians across the broad range of its activities. The work of Environment Australia brings together the themes of country, culture, traditional ecological knowledge and natural resource management. These interlinking themes influence the way Environment Australia approaches management of the environment.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999—(EPBC Act). Commonwealth legislation that replaces the World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 (WHPC Act). The EPBC Act provides a national framework for protecting areas of national environmental significance, and on the conservation of Australia's biodiversity. Areas of involvement include provision for protection of migratory waterbirds; the development and implementation of wildlife conservation plans; preservation and management of wetlands. The WHPC Act enabled the Commonwealth to make regulations to protect Australia's World Heritage properties from threatening actions identified in the regulations. This legislation, in effect, operated as a last resort mechanism for stopping specific actions. In contrast, the EPBC ensures up-front protection and management for the world heritage values of Australia's World Heritage properties.

Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act, 1974—(EPIP Act), an attempt to ensure that matters affecting the environment to a significant extent are fully examined and taken into account in Commonwealth government processes. The administrative procedures made under the EPIP Act detail the arrangements for administering the Act. The Act is administered by Environment Australia on behalf of the Department of the Environment

Enzed—New Zealand; NZ.

Enzedder—New Zealander.

Eora country—central Sydney, at it is sometimes called in reference to its earliest known inhabitants, the Eora people.

Eora people—the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. The word eora simply means 'here' or 'from this place'. Local Aboriginal people used the word to describe to the British where they came from, and the word was then used to define the Aboriginal people themselves. The name Eora is proudly used today by the descendants of those very same people. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as 'Eora country'. The traditional owners of the Sydney city region are the Cadigal. Their land south of Port Jackson stretches from South Head to Petersham.

epacris—a widespread and common heath, frequently in flower. The tubular flowers have small indentations at the base of the tube. The leaves are green on both surfaces and are narrow and sharp. The genus Epacris consists of about 40 species of mainly small shrubs. Most are endemic to Australia but a few species can be found in New Zealand and New Caledonia. They occur in a variety of habitats from alpine areas to coastal heaths

ephemeral lakes—the frequently dry lakes of the arid and semi-arid zone, such as Lake Eyre, Lake Tyrell and Willandra Lakes. Four distinctive stages in the environmental history have been identified: a large/deep lake stage, a drying lake stage, a fluctuating lake water stage, and a recent ephemeral lake stage.

ephemeral stream—a stream that flows briefly and only in direct response to precipitation. Ephemeral streams are the smaller rivers and creeks of semi-arid to arid upland areas. The banks of the streams have scattered riparian trees, shrubs and grasses, but often with incomplete cover. Example rivers are the upper Blackwood River in Western Australia; Burra Creek in South Australia; and the Fanning River near Charters Towers in Queensland. The defining feature of these rivers is the aridity of their environments, alternating with-high energy flow in storm events. Aridity makes them prone to degradation.

ephemeral watercourse—a stream whose channel lies above the water table, and that flows only during or immediately after periods of precipitation.

ephemeral wetlands—wetland areas that dry out on a regular basis. Studies have shown that these ephemeral wetlands are, biologically, among the most productive and most diverse in Australia. As one type of vegetation is succeeded by another, they leave a deposit of a variety of tubers and seeds, many of which can withstand long dry periods, ready to sprout as water levels rise; others may respond to increased light, available when water levels drop. River red gums, which grow close to water and can withstand flooding, will die if high water levels do not fall. Seedlings of paperbarks and other waterside trees need a period of low water levels to become established, while the seeds of cumbungi, produced by the thousands from the bull-rush-like flower heads, can only germinate in moistened mud that has become exposed. Similarly, the female flowers of ribbonweed must be able to protrude above the water surface when levels are low in order for pollination to take place. A number of wetland animals also require dry periods as part of their life cycle. The extreme variation in rainfall patterns in Australia renders many wetlands ephemeral, thereby ensuring the continuing life cycle of many plants and animals

EPIP Act—(see: Environmental Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act, 1974)

epiphytic orchids—a great many orchids are epiphytes, growing out of soil on tree branches. They occur in warmer regions. Epiphytic orchids have modified aerial roots and an epidermis modified into a spongy, water-absorbing velamen, which can have a silvery grey bloom. These roots can sometimes be a few meters long, taking up as much moisture as possible. The aerial roots of epiphytes, lacking leaves, have an additional function. They contain chlorophyll and take up carbon dioxide

Epping Forest National Park—established in 1971 to protect the last population of northern hairy-nosed wombats. Wombat occupy only about 500ha of the 3160 hectares of Epping Forest because most of the park's soils are heavy clays, which aren't suitable for burrows. To ensure these endangered wombats aren't disturbed, only scientists and park rangers can enter Epping Forest National Park (Scientific). Located 855km north-west of Brisbane in Central Queensland

'er indoors—a man's wife.

-ers—as in champers, starkers, stark ravers and goodness knows how many others: this quaint bit of philological zanyism seems to have started at Rugby, a public school, over a century ago, then passed to Oxford along with one or more 'old boys,' and thence into chic young society along with one or more Oxford graduates. The standard word is corrupted, usually truncated, and then inflicted with an -ers. Pregnant to preg- to preggers and so on.

ERA—(see: Energy Resources of Australia).

eremophia—a plant species known to often dominate an area, especially in impoverished sites; in general they are tolerant of harsh conditions, including drought, fire, frost, flooding and grazing. Some of the common names for the Eremophia species are: poverty bush, emu bush, fuchsia bush, tar or turpentine bush. Eremophilas have been used in Aboriginal tribal life in both cultural and medicinal roles. Plant material has been used in ceremonial rites, extracts and decoctions of plant parts have been used as liniments, medicines and antiseptics. The resinous exudants from some species have been used as sealants and adhesives. Prevalent in dry, inland Western Australia.

Eromanga Sea—about 110 million years ago a shallow sea covered what is now arid inland Australia. Australia’s most beautiful and complete fossils of this period are of the spectacular marine creatures that lived in this cold sea. In some cases their bones have turned into precious opal. Three main types of marine reptile used to live in the Eromanga Sea. Pliosaurs came in a range of sizes and differed from plesiosaurs in not having long, snake-like necks. The large pliosaurs were as big as whales but, unlike whales, they were aggressive carnivores with vicious teeth. It’s thought that they even attacked the big, slower moving plesiosaurs. Ichthyosaurs looked like dolphins, but at the time Ichthyosaurs were catching fish and coming up for air, the mammals from which dolphins are descended were still small, furry creatures living on land. There were strange animals related to present day squid called ammonites that swam around in enormous shells the size of truck tyres. And belemnites, which were squid-like animals that looked like cuttlefish and became extinct along with the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The rocks that have been found on the ancient seabed provide important clues about how cold the sea was. Starfish, shells and crinoids, or sea lilies, are not as common today as they were 100 million years ago. But why fish, turtles, starfish and many sorts of shellfish survived and the marine reptiles vanished is still not completely understood.

escape road—safety ramp.

Esky—a portable icebox (Trademark; from esk(imo) + y]; cooler.

esky lid—(derog.) in surfing slang, a bodyboard.

esky-lidder—(derog.) in surfing slang, a bodyboard rider.

Esperance—a large town in the Esperance-Goldfields region of Western Australia, located on the Southern Ocean coastline approximately 720km east-southeast of the state capital, Perth and ringed by the Recherche Archipelago. Esperance was named after L'Esperance, a French frigate which, with its companion vessel Recherche, sheltered from a storm in these waters while exploring the coast of Western Australia in 1792. In the 1820s and 1830s the harbours and bays around Esperance were commonly used by sealers and whalers. James Dempster and other Dempster family members are regarded as the pioneers of the Esperance area, having established a leasehold station of 304,000 acres in 1863, and the Dempsters grazed sheep there, with gradually-declining results, due to trace-element deficiency of the sandy soils. James Dempster contracted to build the Police Station in Esperance Bay (as it was known) in 1878, but Esperance townsite was not officially gazetted until December 1893. The arrival of the railway from Perth to Kalgoorlie in 1896 killed the town. For most of the 20th century the area around Esperance was regarded as too infertile for intense agriculture. It wasn't until 1949 that the Esperance Downs Research Station discovered that the local soil only needed additional trace elements to make it fertile. This simple discovery turned the area into a successful producer of wheat, sheep and cattle. However, there has never been a conclusive study of what lives on the sea floor around the islands of the archipelago. The region is known as the Bay of Isles; two national parks are located in Esperance, the Cape Le Grand and Fitzgerald River National Parks.

Esperance-Goldfields—a region of contrasts, with mining in the north and agriculture and fishing in the south. The region is 771 276sq km in area, which represents about one quarter of the Western Australia, and includes the city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder and the shires of Ngaanyatjarraku, Laverton, Leonora, Menzies, Dundas, Ravensthorpe and Esperance. South Australia lies to the east and the wheatbelt to the west, while the Great Victoria Desert in the north and the south coast are the generic boundaries of the region. The goldrush years of the late nineteenth century brought the region to prominence, and mining continues to be the dominant industry. Gold generates most revenue, followed by an expanding nickel industry. Other significant industries are manufacturing and commerce, which are generally located close to the major regional centres of Kalgoorlie and Esperance; fishing along the south coast; and tourism where beaches and coastal scenery contrast with the red hues of the arid interior to the north.

Esperance Plains bioregion—proteaceous scrub and mallee heaths on sandplain overlying Eocene sediments; rich in endemics. Herbfields and heaths (rich in endemics) on abrupt granite and quartzite ranges that rise from the plain. Eucalypt woodlands occur in gullies and alluvial footslopes. Warm Mediterranean.

essence—(cooking) extract.

Estapol—1. a synthetic, high-gloss wood finish of greater durability than varnish. 2. the act of varnishing: e.g., Should we Estapol the floor, or buy new carpet?

estate—all the property belonging to a person. The estate is one of two basic principals of English land law, the other being tenure. Australian land law is based upon the English law that was imported to and imposed upon the colonies

estate agent—a person whose business is the sale or lease of buildings or land on behalf of others; a real estate agent.

estate in fee simple—confers a number of rights upon the holder, including: the right of possession (including the airspace and the soil); and a right to the natural flow of water from the land both above and below (e.g. another owner cannot dam the flow). The holder of an estate in fee simple holds the land as tenant of the Crown, but free of any feudal incidents or services, and of any quit-rent. The concept of fee-simple is one of two basic tenets underlying the English system of land laws, which was introduced to the Crown colonies within Australia. Both are an outgrowth of the first instances of private property, conferred by the King of England following the Norman Invasion (1066), in which landowners were obliged to serve the king as soldiers.

estuaries and tidal flats of Kakadu—Kakadu's coast plus the creeks and river systems under tidal influence (extending about 100km inland) make up this landform. The shape of the estuaries and tidal flats varies considerably from the dry season to the wet. During the dry, tidal action deposits silt along the river beds and banks, while during the wet the river beds are eroded by the floodwaters and large quantities of fresh and saline water flow out across the tidal flats, where silt is deposited. Large silt loads are also carried out to sea, some of the silt being deposited as a nutrient-rich layer on the sea floor, contributing to the muddy waters that characterise Kakadu's coastline. The estuaries and tidal flats are home to an array of plants and animals adapted to living in the oxygen-deficient saline mud. The dominant habitats are mangrove swamps and samphire flats. Thirty-nine of the 47 Northern Territory species of mangrove occur in Kakadu. On the tidal flats behind the mangroves, hardy samphire, grasses and sedges grow. Isolated pockets of monsoon forest grow along the coast and river banks. These forests contain several impressive trees, among them the banyan fig, which can be recognised by its large, spreading, aerial roots, and the kapok tree, which has a spiny trunk, large, waxy red flowers and pods full of cotton-like material. Estuaries and tidal flats can be seen at West Alligator Head and in the lower sections of the South and East Alligator Rivers.

estuarine crocodile—(see: saltwater crocodile).

estuary—the open mouth of a river, where fresh water and sea water mix.

Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria—(ECCV) the nature of Australian society has been, and is, in a constant state of metamorphosis. The plurality of cultures, values and knowledge has gradually influenced the framework of this society—the heterogeneous face of Australia has become a valued resource. Australia is also experiencing the effects and support of an increasingly global economic and social community. Integral to this changing state of the nation is the establishment of a more equitable relationship between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. The successful acceptance of our cultural and linguistic diversity lies in the expanding attitudes and actions of individual Australians. Our growing hospitality has facilitated recent governments to provide the necessary framework of processes and structures that support a culturally inclusive society. These policies and programs have been derived from the principles of the 1987 Social Justice Strategy and the principles of multiculturalism outlined in the 1989 National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia. The ECCV reaffirms that these principles should be reflected in all ongoing and future government policies and services.

ethno—(derog.) migrant or descendant of a migrant to Australia.

eucalyptus—any tree of the genus Eucalyptus, native to Australia, cultivated for its timber and the oil from its leaves.

eucalyptus forests—Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of trees (rarely shrubs), the members of which dominate the tree flora of Australia. There are almost 600 species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, with a very small number found in adjacent parts of New Guinea and Indonesia. Eucalypts can be found in almost every part of the continent, adapted to all of Australia's climatic conditions; in fact, no other continent is so characterised by a single genus of tree as Australia is by eucalypts. Many, but far from all, are known as 'gum trees'; other names for various species include mallee, box, ironbark, stringybark and ash. Two species of eucalypts are normally co-dominants in each different community-type (why this is so is not known); the two species will differ in different communities, but two co-dominants is the rule.

eucalyptus oil—oil from eucalyptus tree leaves used as an antiseptic, etc.

euchre—1. to outwit or defeat someone through scheming: from a card game of the same name. 2. spoiled; ruined.

euchrozems—found in northern New South Wales and in Queensland, and are formed on the deeply weathered lower horizons of ancient laterites formed on basalt. They have a friable dark brownish-red clay loam at the surface, merging into blocky structured orange to orange-yellow clay, with decomposing basalt at depths of four feet or deeper. They differ from the chernozems mainly in containing more free ferric oxide, and they do not crack so widely. Agriculturally their properties are similar to the chernozems but they are generally lower in available phosphate, although they respond well to superphosphate.

Eucla—established in 1877 as a manual repeater station for the Overland Telegraph. At the time, both the South and Western Australian colonial administrations operated out of Eucla's telegraph station. Before the invention of Morse Code, South Australian staff employed what was known as the "Victorian Alphabet", and Western Australian telegraphers used what was known as the "Universal Code". Originally, Eucla's Delisser Sandhills were considerably smaller than today. In the 1890s a rabbit plague passed through the area, eating dune vegetation which caused large sand drifts that repeatedly covered and uncovered the telegraph station. Today the telegraph station remains in ruin and the area is reportedly haunted by a ghost. Eucla is situated some 13km west of the South Australian border and the name is said to have originated from the Mirning people's word meaning 'bright'.

Eucla Basin—the southern margin of the Australian continent is a divergent, passive continental margin that formed during the protracted period of extension and rifting that led to the separation of Australia and Antarctica in the Cretaceous, and that evolved during the subsequent northward drift of the Australian continent. The initial extension phase before breakup in the mid-Cretaceous, together with the subsequent period of slow spreading until the middle Eocene, resulted in deep continental margin basins filled with as much as 12km of mainly terrigenous clastic sediments. These basins broadly correspond to the sites of modern upper slope terraces. The onset of faster spreading in the middle Eocene also corresponded with the establishment of fully marine conditions and the initiation of carbonate sedimentation in the widening "gulf" between Australia and Antarctica. Carbonate sedimentation continued throughout the remainder of the Cenozoic as the gulf evolved first into a broad, open seaway and then into the modern Southern Ocean. Cenozoic sedimentation resulted in an extensive, relatively thin (up to 800m) Eucla Basin succession deposited in a predominantly platform-sag to platform-edge tectonic regime. Throughout the Cenozoic, the western Great Australian Bight portion of Australia’s southern continental margin has been particularly stable. Slight regional tilting during the middle Miocene resulted in uplift and exposure of the Nullarbor Plain and restriction of Neogene sedimentation to the modern outer shelf and upper slope. contains an unconfined limestone aquifer, and a confined sandstone aquifer at the base. The groundwater is deep and is of generally high salinity. Potable groundwater only exists around the inland margin of the limestone aquifer. There are relatively few bores for pastoral purposes and for supply along the Trans Australian Railway and Eyre Highway. Water for potable use has to be desalinated. At the base of the basin is the Cretaceous Loongana Sandstone, which is the artesian aquifer on Roe Plains. This is overlain by shales of the Toondi and Madura Formation. The unconfined aquifer consists mainly of the Wilson Bluff Limestone and the Abrakurrie Limestone, with greensands of the Cretaceous Nurina Formation, and the Eocene Hampton Sandstone at the base.

Euowenia grata—(De Vis, 1887) Euowenia is an extinct genus of Diprotodontia from the Pliocene. It is known only from three locations on mainland Australia: Chinchilla in Queensland, Menindee in New South Wales and the Tirari formation on the Warburton River in the Lake Eyre basin. A reconstruction of the pes indicates that much more of the body weight was borne by the tarsus in this species than in plesiomorphic diprotodontids, although E. grata does not exhibit the more extreme enlargement of the tarsus seen in graviportal Pleistocene diprotodontids. E. grata is found also to be the only known Australian marsupial, extant or extinct, to exhibit fusion of all three cuneiform bones in the tarsus. It has been suggested that the diprotodontine hind limb and pes had evolved graviportal adaptations in the Pliocene as well as in the Pleistocene members, and that E. grata may have been able to rear up against trees whilst browsing.

Eumerella Wars—Deen Maar was the site of deadly conflict between Aboriginal people and squatters in 1842, commonly known as the Eumerella Wars. The battles raged for 10 years in the mid-1800s. The remains of Aboriginal people involved in the conflict are at Deen Maar.

Eureka Stockade Uprising—the legendary uprising of diggers (1854) over the expense of a miner's licence, and their lack of representation in the Legislative Council. The death of a miner at the hand of a local publican and three others resulted in a trial and acquittal, sparking the uprising. Several thousand miners assembled in protest, and the hotel where the death occurred was burned down. Military reinforcements were sent from Melbourne, resulting in a skirmish lasting about twenty minutes. Martial law was proclaimed and the arrest and trial of thirteen miners for "rioting" ensued. All were acquitted—a victory for the battler over the oppressive hand of authority. The Gold Fields Royal Commission led to reform of the laws, and gave the miners almost everything they had asked for. The gold license was abolished and replaced by a miner's right costing one pound per year. Possession of this license gave the digger a right to mine gold and vote in the elections for Parliament.

euro—the reddish, short-haired Macropus robustus erubescens, a sub-species of the wallaroo, of drier Australia, west of the Great Dividing Range

Eurobodalla National Park—covers an area of approximately 2892ha and conserves 30km of coastline, including wetlands, estuaries and catchment systems. Aboriginal sites, including shell middens, stone working areas and quarries, are located in the national park. Bingie Bingie Point is significant, with numerous middens and stone-tool-working areas located here. Bingie Bingie Point is a geological site due to the outstanding exposures of a complex igneous rock formation. About 265ha of bushland was added in January of 2004 to Eurobodalla in one of the most significant additions to any coastal park. The land was purchased from the local council for over $1 million on the basis that the council retain ownership of a narrow strip of land behind the local beaches. The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service says the addition will ensure that the area remains undisturbed and protected from future development. Eurobodalla National Park is located approximately 20km south of Bateman Bay.

European settlement—commenced in 1788 when Governor Phillip claimed possession of the land on behalf of the British government. All lands were vested in the name of the Crown (thus the terms Crown colony and Crown land). The annexation of territory by settlement was initially seen as applicable only to unoccupied territory. However, it came to be recognised under international law of the day as applying to territory newly discovered by Europeans. From 1788 until 1823, the Colony of New South Wales was a penal colony. This meant that there were mainly convicts, marines and the wives of the marines, although free settlers started to arrive in 1793. In 1823, the British government established a New South Wales parliament by setting up a Legislative Council as well as a Supreme Court under the New South Wales Act 1823 (). This Act is now seen as a first step towards a 'responsible' Parliament in Australia. It was also intended to establish English law in the colony with the establishment of NSW criminal and civil courts. However, there were significant departures from English law when the first cases were heard in the courts. The question of land ownership by Indigenous people was not dealt with by the colonisers until the mid-1830s. In 1835, John Batman signed two 'treaties' with Kulin people to 'purchase' 600,000 acres of land between what is now Melbourne and the Bellarine Peninsula. In response to these treaties and other arrangements between free settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, such as around Camden, the NSW Governor, Sir Richard Bourke issued a proclamation. Bourke's proclamation established the notion that the land belonged to no-one prior to the British Crown taking possession. To effectively override the legitimacy of the 'Batman treaty' the British Colonial Office felt the need to issue another proclamation. The proclamation stated that people found in possession of land without the authority of the government would be considered trespassers. This was despite and because many other people, including a report to the House of Commons in 1837, recognised that Aboriginal occupants had rights in land. Nevertheless, the law in New South Wales variously applied the principles expressed in Bourke's proclamation. This would not change until the Australian High Court's decision in the Mabo Case in 1992. In 1861, the NSW government opened up the free selection of Crown land. The Crown Lands Acts 1861 permitted any person to select up to 320 acres on the condition of paying a deposit and living on the land for three years. The Acts also limited the use of Crown lands by Aboriginal people as until this time, pastoral lands were still able to be legitimately used by them. As a result of Crown land being available for selection, great conflicts between squatters and the selectors ensued. Scheming in selecting and acquiring land became widespread. The Acts had a powerful impact on the ownership of land, also affecting the use of bush land across vast regions of the colony. In the view of some observers, these disputes over access to land also encouraged bushranging.

Evans, George William—born Jan. 5, 1780, London, England, died Oct. 16, 1852, Hobart, Tasmania. As an apprentice to an engineer and architect, Evans learned surveying. In 1796 he emigrated to the Cape of Good Hope, and, after British forces withdrew from there in 1802, he went to New South Wales as a storekeeper. In 1802-03 he was appointed acting surveyor-general of that colony. In 1804 Evans discovered and explored the Warragamba River. Discharged in 1805 by Governor Phillip King, Evans farmed land granted him earlier but failed, and in 1809 was appointed assistant surveyor at Port Dalrymple. In 1812 he explored overland to Jervis Bay, where he surveyed its shores; as a result the Illawarra region was settled. In 1812 he explored the interior of New South Wales and was appointed deputy surveyor of lands in Van Diemen's Land. In the course of his seven-week 1813 expedition to the interior of New South Wales, he became the first European to make a complete crossing of the Great Dividing Range. In 1815 he explored further, discovering the Lachlan River, which he followed as far as Mandagery Creek. In 1817 he was second-in-command to the surveyor-general John Oxley in an expedition to trace the Lachlan River and in 1818 in an attempt to trace the Macquarie River to its source. He resumed his deputy surveyorship but went with the first party sent to Macquarie Harbour in 1822. He was implicated in charges of corruption against the deputy governor William Sorell and in 1825 resigned his office, took his pension, and returned to London, where he taught art. As an artist, Evans painted scenes set both in settlements and in the bush.

Evans Head—a small town on the north coast of New South Wales. The town's relative isolation has restricted the level of services. Forty-five per cent of its population are retirees. Evans Head was known as Gummingarr, a name derived from the Aboriginal gummi, meaning 'father's mother'. Evan's Head is located in the Richmond Valley.Evelyn Downs Station—situated 160km north-west of Coober Pedy, SA, and spans the Breakaway Country, where the red plateau of the Great Victoria Desert falls away to the western edge of the Lake Eyre basin. Here, the headwaters of the Kulvegallinna and Evelyn creeks have their beginnings in a network of tiny watercourses. Evelyn Downs Station has been seen by relatively few people and it is only in the last twenty years or so that it has been explored. Even so, there are still many places in the more remote areas that have never been trodden by white man.

Evelyn Tableland—named after Evelyn Station, which was named after Evelyn, wife of F. Stubby. Currently named Atherton Tableland

ever-so ever-so—pompous; haughty; stuck-up; snooty: e.g., She's ever-so ever-so since she went overseas.

Evercreech Forest Reserve—this reserve protects a stand of the tallest forest white gums in existence—the ‘White Knights’. Their stark, straight trunks make a spectacular addition the lush landscape of ferns and mountain streams. Enjoy a picnic or barbecue in the shady canopy of the world's tallest white gums (over 90m high), and explore the short bushland walking tracks through forest and alongside the headwaters of the South Esk River. Nearby are the Mathinna Falls Forest Reserve and the Griffin Camping Area. Located near Fingal in Victoria.

evergreen—remaining popular through the years: e.g., Elvis Presley will always be an evergreen.

everlasting daisyHelichrysum bracteatum, endemic to Australia, growing in open scrub and grassland areas. Flowers have a papery texture, are yellow to golden yellow and average 5cm in width. Everlasting daisy flowers from early spring through summer into autumn until frosts begin, though close in the evening or on dark, overcast days

every bastard and his dog—the general public; many people: e.g., Every bastard and his dog was there, yet it was supposed to be a secret.

every which way—in all directions; all over the place: e.g., The wind blew my newspaper every which way.

everything's apples—all is well, under control, satisfactory, going well.

Evodiella—a small genus of about five species, Evodiella muelleri being the only one that extends into Australia. Named after Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, 19th century botanist who was the first government botanist for Victoria. Evodiella muelleri is generally a small, grey-barked tree to about 6m. Clusters of bright pink flowers occur along the branches during summer and these are followed by green, citrus-like fruits. Birds such as lorikeets and honeyeaters are said to be attracted to this plant. In addition, it is one of the food trees for the Ulysses butterfly. Distribution: Lowland and Highland forest, from Iron Range in the north to the Atherton Tableland in the south. It also extends into Papua New Guinea. Common name: little evodia.

exchange notes—to gossip: e.g., The girls are exchanging notes in the kitchen.

Exclusive Economic Zone—(EEZ) a concept recognised under the United Nations Law of the Sea, whereby coastal states assume jurisdiction over the exploration and exploitation of marine resources extending 200 nautical miles (about 370km) from the shore or baseline. As a party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Australia has sovereign rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the natural resources within her recognised area of Exclusive Economic Zone. Australia's 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone is over 11 million square kilometres in area, and is one of the largest in the world. The area of claimable sea floor is 14.8 million square kilometres. Australia's EEZ came into force on 16 November, 1994

Executive Council—comprises the governor and cabinet ministers, who advise on the exercise of the powers of the governor-in-council. This advice is required for the legal execution of such actions as making proclamations, regulations authorised by the Parliament, appointments to public office and commissions for officers of the police force. These are all said to have been done by the governor-in-council.

Executive Council (federal)—established by section 62 of the Constitution to 'advise the Governor-General in the government of the Commonwealth'. Under section 63, any functions or powers vested in the Governor-General-in-Council must be carried out or exercised with the advice of the federal Executive Council. The Executive Council is supported by a Secretariat located in the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary to the Federal Executive Council, who attends all Executive Council meetings. All Ministers of state and parliamentary secretaries are sworn as members of the council, though not all of them attend all meetings. Meetings are usually held fortnightly, mostly at Government House. The Council is concerned with a wide range of business, mostly involving powers given to the Governor-General-in-Council in Acts of the Commonwealth. This includes the making of regulations and statutory appointments, and the creation and abolition of government departments through Administrative Arrangements Orders

executive government—the administrative branch of government, headed by cabinet ministers. According to the Australian Constitution (section 61), the "executive power of the Commonwealth is vested in the Queen and exercisable by the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". However, under the Westminster conventions of responsible government, the Prime Minister and his or her ministers and parliamentary secretaries effectively exercise the executive powers of the Commonwealth. These ministers are in control of government departments and run the business of government. For all practical purposes, the ministry is the executive branch of government, and the Queen is merely a figurehead. The executive branch of government is commonly referred to as 'the Executive'

Executive—(the...) the executive branch of government, which is responsible for the administration of government business. The Prime Minister and his or her ministers and parliamentary secretaries effectively exercise the executive powers of the Commonwealth. These ministers are in control of government departments and run the business of government. The two other branches of government are the Legislative and the Judiciary

Exmouth—a town at the northern tip of the North West Cape. Founded in 1967, it is one of the newest towns in Australia yet is already prominent as a big game fishing centre. Offshore, the visitor can get up close to the spectacular whale sharks that visit in late summer. Exmouth came into prominence in the 1960s when selected as the location for the very low-frequency radio station to provide communications for U.S. submarines. Originally a service town for a US Navy base that is long-since closed, Exmouth is also home to Cape Range National Park. Located in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia, 1270km from Perth.

Exmouth Gulf—the location of a highly productive prawn fishery (over 1000 tonnes per year). Coral reefs dot the entrance to the north-west, human habitation is sparse, and there is little published information on marine habitats within the gulf. The region is fringed with mangroves on the southern and eastern edges. Saline flats and sand ridges lie inland. Rainfall and river-run off are very low, and depend on rare floods associated with cyclones. Located on the north-central coastline of Western Australia.

exotic weeds—plants/weeds that are not native to the area in which they're now growing

Experiment Farm—the site of Australia's first land grant. In an experiment set up by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1789, it was demonstrated that the Australian wilderness could be converted to productive farmland. This was accomplished by a convict from the First Fleet, Cornish farmer James Ruse, who was granted the land known as the "Experiment Farm" as a reward. In 1793 Ruse sold his farm to Surgeon Harris, who built the present house. Now a museum, Experiment Farm Cottage is preserved and managed by the National Trust.

Explorers' (or Marked) Tree—the Explorers’ Tree at Katoomba, through its perceived association with the expedition of Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth in 1813, has achieved the status of a national symbol. For many it stands as one of the few surviving tangible links to the early period of Blue Mountains exploration and, in particular, to the first major triumph of land exploration in Australia. Periodically, however, its authenticity is questioned. It is somewhat uncertain when the tree first came to public notice as an historical site. In 1884 a wall and fence were erected around the tree on the authority of James S Farnell, Minister of Lands. The quaint little wayside shrine that it has become is, nonetheless, one of the most powerful icons of Blue Mountains folklore

extensive land use zone—the area of Australia that does not contain intensive land use. Broadly referred to as the rangelands.

extinction of the Australian pygmy—the first extended contact between Europeans and Australian pygmies occurred in the 1890s at Yarrabah, an Anglican church mission to Aborigines established in 1892 at Cape Grafton, just south of Cairns in Far North Queensland. The three main tribes in the region were the Kongkandji (Gungganydji), Indindji and Barbaram, whose territories covered, respectively, the coastal area around Cape Grafton, the eastern slopes of the Atherton Tableland from Lake Barrine south to Gordonvale, and the Great Dividing Range behind Cairns. All of them shared the same very short physical stature, as well as similar languages and culture. In the mission's first five years, about 150 Kongkandji periodically visited to receive rations but only a small number remained there permanently. After the Queensland government passed its Aboriginal Protection Act in 1897, which forced Aborigines to be legally confined to reserves and missions, Yarrabah grew to a settlement of 150 residents drawn not only from the three local tribes but also from people all over North Queensland who bore no physical or cultural resemblance to the Cape Grafton Aborigines. Outside the mission, however, no one paid these people any special attention until an Adelaide researcher came across them in the late 1930s. What eventually happened to the Cairns rainforest people? The settlement at Yarrabah still exists at Cape Grafton. After 1897 it was not confined to the local people but accommodated Aborigines from all over North Queensland. The missionaries deliberately disrupted traditional tribal betrothals so that a fair amount of inter-marriage took place.

extinguishment—the loss of native title rights by means of a government act. Post 1993, native title rights in Australia may only be extinguished in accordance with the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)

extract the digit—stop being lazy, idle and start work; work harder and with more perseverance.

exy—expensive: e.g., hubby's drinking habits are becoming exy.

Eye of the Needle—the western entrance to Bass Strait, an 84km gap between Cape Wickham on King Island and Cape Otway. Sea captains of the 18th and 19th centuries would hug the Victorian coast to avoid being driven into King Island in bad weather.

eye off—to stare at with desire or want (often with the intention of buying or stealing): e.g., Don't eye off another man's wife!

eye-service—admiring looks: e.g., He gave you a lot of eye-service.

eyes like roadmaps/two holes burned in a blanket/two piss-holes in the snow—bloodshot, red, tired-looking eyes.

eyes on, hand's off!—a warning that one may look but not touch.

eyetie—an Italian person or thing.

eyewash—nonsense; rubbish; bunkum.

Eyre, Edward John—(1815-1901), together with his Aboriginal friend Wylie, was the first man to cross southern Australia from east to west, travelling across the Nullarbor Plain from Adelaide to Albany. In 1839 he set off to reach the centre. Lake Torrens was covered with salty mud. His way was blocked by swamps in one direction and by sandhills in another, so he followed the Flinders Ranges to Mount Hopeless, where he turned back.

Eyre and Yorke Block—Archaean basement rocks and Proterozoic sandstones overlain by undulating to occasionally hilly calcarenite and calcrete plains and areas of aeolian quartz sands, with mallee woodlands, shrublands and heaths on calcareous earths, duplex soils and calcareous to shallow sands, now largely cleared for agriculture

Eyre Peninsula—covers a vast area, stretching 1000km from the Western Australian/South Australian border to the Iron Knob triangle city of Whyalla and 400km from the Gawler Ranges to Port Lincoln in the south. It's an area covering over 2000km of spectacular coastline, towering limestone cliffs, sweeping surf beaches, sheltered coves and bays, changing to a hinterland of rolling hills and farmland, remarkable rocks and rugged ranges.

Eyrean grasswrenAmytornis goyderi, a desert-dwelling bird that eats seeds and small invertebrates, but does not drink. The bird has very efficient kidneys and produces very dry, concentrated excreta. The birds are mostly found on sand dunes in clumps of sandhill cane grass, where it is very common yet elusive. Here, they shelter from the heat of the midday sun and predators; the streaked upper parts of the similar looking male and female camouflage them perfectly in the densely tangled bushes. The nest, built among the stems of the bush, is a deep cup of grass stems with the rim sloping at a 45 degree angle and facing the leeward side of the dune to reduce exposure to the wind and sun. Two eggs are laid. The Eyrean grasswren is endemic to the vast areas of sandhill cane grass in north-east South Australia, south-east Northern Territory and south-west Queensland. This region is unsuitable for grazing cattle, so there has been little disturbance of this species by humans.

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