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Australia Decoded
'F-3'


Freshwater Crocodile

Freshwater Crocodile



fossick—the word comes from British dialect where it meant: to obtain by asking, to ferret out. On the goldfields it had two meanings: to search for gold on the surface, sometimes in a desultory or unsystematic way; and to steal gold from other diggers, especially from an unattended claim. The second meaning was transferred from literal gold-seeking early on. Thus in 1853 we find: ‘If a man were to take a log of fire-wood from a neighbour's heap … it would be said he had been fossicking', and the term was often used ironically: ‘If one in want of a dinner called at his neighbour's tent at mutton time he would be a fossicker' (Adelaide Wanderer, June 1853, p.75). But it is the first meaning which has survived into contemporary Australian English.

Fossicker's Way—a scenic drive incorporating seven shires in northern New South Wales. Commencing off the New England Highway to Nundle and then Tamworth, the route takes in Manilla, Barraba, Bingara and Warialda, then along the Gwydir Highway to Inverell and Glen Innes, where it rejoins the New England Highway.

Fossil Triangle—some of the most complete dinosaur remains have been recovered from an area of outback Queensland know as the "fossil triangle", a roughly triangular area connecting Winton, Hughenden and Cloncurry. This area was part of a shallow inland sea around 115 MYA (the Early Cretaceous), and hence most of the fossil remains are to be found in soft marine limestones that are far easier to extract fossils from than the hard stone that encases fossils in Victoria. The Rhoetosaurus remains from Roma, further to the south-east, were found in much harder sandstone, dating to the Middle Jurassic. The large ornithopod Muttaburrasaurus langdoni and the ankylosaur Minmi paravertebra, probably the two most complete dinosaurs discovered in Australia, were both found in this area. Australia's only known sauropods, Rhoetosaurus brownei and Austrosaurus mckillopi were also discovered in this region. A single partial sauropod vertebra found at Hughenden may be evidence of Australian brachiosaurs. Winton is famous for its well preserved dinosaur trackway at Lark Quarry. They seem to show the result of a dinosaur "stampede", consisting of hundreds of footprints from small- and medium-sized carnivores and herbivores, with the footprints of a single large carnivore, perhaps the cause of the stampede.

Foundation for Rabbit Free Australia—the origins of ARRFA began during late 1990 at a meeting at Port Augusta where Keith Greenfield of Billa Kalina station suggested that a national fund be formed to fund research about the rabbit problem. The Foundation is a non-profit organisation established to: support research and other measures contributing to the eradication of the wild rabbit from Australia raise awareness through the community as to the nature and extent of rabbit induced land and environmental degradation and provide initiatives and support for rabbit control methods based on strategic integrated programs.

four-bob Rob—lived in the Sydney suburb of Waterloo in the year 1897. He came into a bit of money and bought himself a horse and trap. The money was quickly spent and Robinson tired of the horse – so he turned to letting out the horse and trap for four shillings a half day. Almost immediately there was a run on this cheap rate for the hire of a horse and trap. So Robbo bought two other horses and traps and let them out for the same low rate. Neighbouring livery stables resented his under-cutting their rates, and used to cry out in derision (when one of his rigs passed by) “four bob Robbo”. The cry was taken up by children and became a Waterloo classic. It cost one person two pounds, when a magistrate ruled that calling out “four bob Robbo” in the street constituted insulting language calculated to create a breach of the peace. However, the term spread, and for a while any horse and trap was called by the street boys “a Robbo”.

Fourex—the popular brand of beer, XXXX; produced by Castlemaine Brewery.

foxtail palmWodyetia bifurcata was named after Wodyeti, an Aboriginal bushman, who was the last of his line holding a vast, traditional knowledge of the palm's natural habitat. This rare palm was not discovered until late in the 20th century, as it occurs naturally only in the Bathurst Bay-Melville Range in a very remote area of Far North Queensland. The foxtail palm is prized by palm enthusiasts and landscapers for its thick, robust trunk and neat appearance, especially the arching crown of light green fronds which, as the name suggests, gives the palm's foliage the appearance of a fox's tail as it sways in the breeze. The foxtail palm is now one of the world's most popular landscape palms.

fraidy-cat—coward (in children's speech).

Framglingham—site of the first Aboriginal land rights victory in Australia, along with Lake Tyers. The Victorian Government handed over 586 acres of land to the traditional owners, under the Aboriginal Land (Lake Condah and Framlingham Forest) Act 1987. Originally an Aboriginal reserve, Framlingham is now a small township. The Framlingham Trust Council currently manages the community's affairs and maintains the surrounding and adjacent forestlands. Framlingham is situated near Warrnambool on fertile land in the rugged Western District of Victoria.

Framlingham Forest—the only remaining large area of remnant native vegetation in south-east Victoria. Native grasslands are a particular feature, as native pasture paddocks. The forest is historically and culturally important to the Aboriginal community, which is supported by the Framlingham Aboriginal Trust. In the 1980s, land right claims were issued for 1000 acres of the Framlingham Forest surrounding the Framlingham Mission. As a result of the Aboriginal Land Act 1987, the land was handed over to the Kirrae Whurrong Aboriginal Corporation at both Framlingham and Lake Condah.

Francois Peron National Park—named after the French zoologist who accompanied the Nicolas Baudin scientific expedition to southern and western Australia in 1801, the Francois Peron National Park covers some 52,500ha at the northern extreme of the Peron Peninsula. The park and the rest of the peninsula are interspersed with gypsum claypans known as birridas. Most birridas were landlocked saline lakes when sea levels were much higher than at present, and gypsum was deposited on the lake floors. In some places the sea has invaded the claypans to form a shallow inland bay. Peron Station developed in the 1880's as a sheep station, and in 1990 was purchased by the Western Australian government to create a national park. The park offers rare wildlife, spectacular coastal scenery and rolling shrublands and spinifex sandplains interspersed with gypsum claypans of birridas. Some of the animals found in the area include euros, thorny devils, racehorse goannas, emus, fairy-wrens and thick-billed grasswrens. From the cliffs of Cape Peron, dugongs, manta rays, turtles, sharks and fish are often spotted. Francois Peron National Park lies 10km from Denham, 340km from Carnarvon and 410km from Geraldton.

Frankland, George—(1800-1838), a surveyor-general, explored and mapped Tasmania's river systems and studied the island's plants and animals. In 1831, he built Secheron House, which still stands in Hobart. Frankland was born in England. He arrived in Hobart in 1827 and personally led expeditions to the Upper Derwent River in 1828, the Upper Huon River in 1829, and the Central Highlands around Lake St Clair in 1835. He left the colony in 1838.

Frankland Islands National Park—an uninhabited island and day-trip destination. Located directly off the coast from Russell Heads, 40km south of Cairns, Queensland.

Franklin River—the main river of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park. The Franklin flows 125km through deep gorges and temperate rainforest, traversing a World Heritage Area. The Franklin is also regarded as one of the most challenging rafting rivers in Australia. Located in the heart of Tasmania's uninhabited south-west.

Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park—contains the last stands of Huon pine. As early as 1822, Huon pine formed the basis of a timber industry that lasted for over 150 years. Timber extraction centred on the lower Gordon River and remote upper reaches of the wild rivers. The park itself is watered by the rivers Franklin, Gordon and Olga. The Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park is a temperate wilderness area linking the Southwest National Park to the Cradle Mountain-Lake St. Clair National Park. The original inhabitants of this land, isolated from their mainland counterparts for 10,000 years, developed a culture different to that of the mainland Aborigines. Their use of fire to clear the land and open up hunting grounds produced profound changes in vegetation communities. The Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park lies in the heart of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.

Fraser, Malcolm—Liberal politician and prime minister of Australia, 1975-83. Born in Melbourne into a wealthy grazier family, Fraser managed his family’s property in western Victoria. He won the federal seat of Wannon in 1955, and by the mid-1960s was one of the key figures in the Liberal Party, holding a number of portfolios. He became Liberal leader in 1975. He was instrumental in bringing about a constitutional crisis in which the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, dismissed Mr Whitlam and dissolved both houses of Parliament. At the subsequent election in 1975 the Coalition parties won a record majority—and won further elections in 1977 and 1980. He dismantled many of Whitlam’s reforms in an attempt to reduce the federal deficit. In the 1983 election, Fraser was defeated by the Labor opposition led by Bob Hawke. Mr Fraser resigned from Parliament later in 1983.

Fraser Island—the largest coastal dune system and sand island in the world. It was formed during the Ice Age, when prevailing winds transported vast quantities of sand from New South Wales and deposited it along the coast of Queensland. This fragile rainforest ecosystem grows in pure sand and provides habitat for over 200 species of birds. Fraser Island supports vegetation that recycles its own dead matter for nutrients, and is watered by a pure aquifer. The island also has pockets of rainforest (3,260ha—one quarter of which is within the World-Heritage area) where hoop pine and Queensland kauri dominate the canopy. In 1990 there were still battles going on over the logging of the island's rainforest. Fraser Island is now World Heritage-listed, and almost the entire island is protected as a national park. It preseves ancient Aboriginal sites and a range of wildlife including brumbies, dingos, echidnas, wallabies and flying foxes. Located just off the coast from Hervey Bay, the island is 123km long and varies in width from 7km to 22km, covering an area of 184,000sq km.

Fraser Island Mission—church influence: Australian Board of Mission. Fraser Island is located off the coast near Hervey Bay in Queensland, and was named after Eliza Fraser, who was shipwrecked on the island in 1836. In the late 1890s the mission was established with the Gubbi Gubbi and Badtjala people being moved there. In 1904, 177 people were relocated to Yarrabah Mission.

Fraser Island National Park—the first attempt to establish the island as a National Park was made as early as 1893 but the timber interests which were already on the island managed to dissuade the government, and for the next 60 years the island was logged. By the mid-1960s a number of mining leases had been taken out on parts of the island by Queensland Titanium Mines Pty Ltd and Murphyores. The wealth of the island lay in its rich deposits of rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite. The battle raged through both the state and federal courts and resulted in the historic Fraser Island Environmental Inquiry which, in October 1976, decided that all sand mining should be banned and that the island should be recorded as part of the National Estate. In 1990 there were still battles going on over the logging of the island's rainforest. Today Fraser Island is World Heritage-listed, and almost the entire island is a protected National Park, ideal for camping, 4WD and bushwalking. It preseves ancient Aboriginal sites and a range of wildlife including over 200 bird species, brumbies, dingos, wallabies and echidnas. The island is attended by around 200,000 visitors each year. Accommodation ranges from flats, motels and holiday houses to campsites.

Fraser Island satinaySyncarpia hillii, trees once used for wharf piles, e.g. London Docks, Suez Canal.

frazzled (nerves)—edgy; nervous; worn-out; at the end of one's endurance or tolerance.

freckle past a hair—stock answer to someone who asks what the time is (especially if one does not wear a watch).

freckled duckStrictonetta naevosa, a rare bird endemic to inland south-eastern Australia and the south-west of Western Australia. As a typically gregarious species, it will regularly congregate in groups of 10-100 birds. They prefer fresh, densely vegetated waters, particularly floodwater swamps and creeks vegetated with lignum or canegrass. They feed on seeds and vegetative parts of aquatic grasses, sedge seeds and algae, and small invertebrates. The freckled duck will occur on wetands in any part of western NSW, when conditions are suitable. Vagrants may occur elsewhere, particularly during periods of drought.Their eastern breeding stronghold lies in the Murray-Darling Basin, Lake Eyre and south-western Queensland. During the June-December breeding season, the male's slate-blue bill turns crimson at the base. Listed as a vulnerable species, yet there is no recovery program in effect to date.

Fred Nurks—1. the average man in the street. 2. euphemism for anonymity.

free selection—(hist.) in post-goldrush Victoria and New South Wales, newly constituted democratic governments promoted closer settlement schemes that involved the forced-resumption selection and sale before survey of vast areas of Crown land. The so-called "Free Selection Acts" of the 1860s largely failed to achieve their stated purpose of establishing a class of self-sufficient yeoman farmers in place of large-scale pastoral leaseholders. However, in south-west Victoria, free selection together with an increased demand for labour in the pastoral industry resulted in the rapid growth of small towns such as Merino, Casterton and Branxholm.

free settlers—as opposed to transported convicts, began to enter Australia from the very beginning, but they did not achieve substantial numbers until they began to flock to Australia after gold was discovered in the 1850s. Australia became a nation on January 1, 1901 when the separate colonies formed a federation. By 1850, the population of Australia was about 400,000, and by 1900 nearly four million. After World War II, there was a flood of immigration to Australia – mostly non-British. Today, Australia is incredibly multi-cultural, with only 1 in 5 Australians being of European decent. Large communities of Greeks, Italians, Chinese, Thai, and Vietnamese live in Australia. Melbourne has the largest Greek community outside of Athens, and Adelaide has the largest Italian and Lebanese communities outside of their respective countries.

freedom of association—a term referring to the right of employees and employers to join an organisation or association of their choice, or not to join an organisation or association, without discrimination or victimisation. The term is taken from provisions of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 that prohibit victimisation or discrimination on various grounds, including a person’s membership or non-membership of an industrial association. The freedom of association provisions have abolished compulsory unionism for the whole of the country.

freehold—a form of land tenure that may take the form of freehold title, a grant of freehold, a freehold estate, or an estate in fee simple. The Crown retains the power to offer various forms of freehold title with different specifications on the right of the titleholder. In particular, the Crown retains ownership over minerals, surface and sub-surface waters and wildlife, and can regulate or restrict the use of freehold land. Freehold title generally empowers the titleholder to control the day-to-day use of the land; its development and subdivision; and its leasing, sale or transfer. Freehold title is the most common form of freehold tenure. A person who holds land under freehold title is known as ‘the registered proprietor of an estate in fee simple’.

freehold tenure—land owned privately, as opposed to leasehold tenure.

freehold title—the most common form of freehold tenure. A person who holds land under freehold title is known as 'the registered proprietor of an estate in fee simple'. This is basically the equivalent of full ownership to land. All freehold estates are of indefinite duration and may last forever.

freeze the balls off a brass monkey—pertaining to very cold weather.

Fremantle—named in August 1829 for Captain Sir Charles Howe Fremantle, who took possession of the Western Australian coast, then called New Holland, for Britain in 1829. Captain Fremantle anchored his ship, the HMS Challenger, in Cockburn Sound, and explored the Swan River. On the second of May 1829, he took formal possession of the whole of the western coast of Australia in the name of King George IV of Britain. When Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling arrived in June of the same year, it was decided that the area would be developed as a port. The first gaol in the Swan River colony was situated in Fremantle and completed in 1831. Fremantle is Western Australia's major commercial port and handles the majority of the State's imports and exports. The distinctive nature of a port city and the availability of warehouses made vacant by the modernisation of the port attracted artists and arts organisations seeking low-cost accommodation. Fremantle has long been know as WA's "other capital".

Fremantle, Captain Sir Charles Howe—In 1829, Captain Fremantle at the age of 29 was in charge of the HMS Challenger, which was one of the three ships involved in the founding of estern Australia. Fremantle anchored in Cockburn Sound and explored the Swan River. On the second of May 1829, he took formal possession of the whole of the western coast of Australia in the name of King George IV of Britain.

Fremantle doctor—a refreshing summer breeze that blows from about midday to late afternoon in the Fremantle area of Western Australia.

Fremantle Prison—as a place of incarceration for almost 150 years its inmates included British convicts, local prisoners, military prisoners, enemy aliens and prisoners of war. Built by convicts in the 1850s, it became a colonial prison in the 1880s and its inmates extended to include women as well as men. Its twentieth century history includes time as a military prison; and after its closure as Western Australia's primary place of incarceration and a maximum security prison, it is now one of the state's premier heritage sites.

French Island—a tiny island located in Westernport Bay, to the south-east of Melbourne. It measures 18km by 12km, has a coastline of 144km, and encompasses 21,800ha. The island's coastline is predominately saltmarsh, with mangroves on the mudflats. The interior is mostly heathland with wildflower displays in spring. There are around 600 plant species and a great diversity of birdlife, as well as Australia’s largest koala community. The island must export approximately 200 koalas to the mainland annually, due to excess demands on their food supply. Also firmly established on the island, albeit in small numbers, is the rare potoroo. The name derives from visitation by a French scientific expedition led by Nicolas Baudin. Although France was at war with Britain at the time, the expedition was granted immunity by the British Admiralty. The island was christened Ile de Francois, but was soon anglicised to French Island. In subsequent years, the island was inhabited by itinerant sealers; the first pastoral run was established in the early 1850s; and during the 1890s depression, the government oversaw the establishment of six settlements. Approximately sixty people now inhabit the largely unspoilt island ecosystem, which has become a major tourist attraction. Two-thirds of the land mass has been declared as national parkland.

French Island Marine National Park—extends approximately 15km along the northern shore of French Island, encompassing approximately 2800ha. The area is used by up to 32 migratory bird species from the Northern Hemisphere, which spend our summer feeding on the wide diversity of invertebrates found in the mudflats and seagrasses. Some of the notable migratory species include the eastern curlew, the bar-tailed godwit, and the curlew sandpiper. The park includes the waters around Barralier Island, which is one of the bay's 13 high-tide roosts. The French Island Marine National Park is located about 10km south of Tooradin, and is adjacent to the northern shoreline of French Island National Park, in Western Port Bay.

French Island National Park—protects two-thirds of French Island, in Westerport Bay. Vegetation communities on the island range from mangroves and saltmarsh through to heaths and open woodlands. The thickets of white mangrove are believed to be the largest community so far from the Equator. In the bay, vast beds of sea-grass help to stabilize the mud. These underwater meadows are important breeding grounds for fish and invertebrates, and are among the most extensive found along the southern Australian coast. The island was formally discovered when boats from the French expedition ship, Le Naturaliste, sailed into Western Port in April 1802 and spent a week checking the maps of George Bass. The island was circumnavigated, and named Ile de Francoise. The island’s first pastoral run was leased in 1850. About 70 permanent residents, many of them descendants of the first settlers, have made the more fertile southern part of the island into farmland. French Island National Park supports and preserves a large population of the long-nosed potoroo, as well as containing the most significant population of koalas in Victoria. The koalas reproduce so successfully that over 200 are transferred annually to reserves in other parts of the state.

French leave—departure without permission or notice, e.g., AWOL.

French letter—condom.

Freo—Fremantle, Western Australia.

freshie—a freshwater crocodile.

freshwater crocodileCrocodilus johnstoni, found in permanent freshwater streams, rivers and billabongs in northern Australia, from the Kimberley's to the Cape York Peninsula.

freshwater mangrove—Abrringtonia actuangula, a small, spreading tree that grows on the banks of freshwater creeks, rivers and swamps in Arnhem Land. It develops hanging, bright-red flowers between September and December. It is also known as the 'itchy tree' because small caterpillars feed on the leaves during the wet season and cause localised skin irritation if touched.

freshwater yabbyCherax destructor occurs west of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales and over a large area of the Australian continent. It has adapted to many different habitats, from the cold waters of the Snowy Mountains lakes to the hot centre of Australia and is the most abundant and successful of the Australian freshwater crayfish. The yabby was recorded as early as 1831 by the explorer Thomas Mitchell and also during Eyre's 1845 expedition into the Centre. It is very tasty and was welcome on the menu of Aborigines as far back as 28,000 years ago, as evidenced by the remains of shells and other hard parts in riverside middens. The common yabby forms an important part of the diet of white ibis, several cormorants, and warm water fishes such as the Murray cod and the golden perch or yellowbelly. They occur in lakes, swamps, billabongs, farm dams, irrigation canals and bore drains as well as in slow, muddy rivers and creeks. The yabby has evolved an ingenious mechanism for surviving drought. As the ground dries up it burrows down following the falling water table, and seals the burrow entrance with an earthen plug. In a small, moist chamber at the bottom, the yabby enters a state resembling suspended animation, its bodily functions (respiration, pulse and digestion) practically ceasing. This mechanism is called aestivation (not hibernation, which is a winter adaptation of warm-blooded animals). In dense populations it can be gregarious, but solitary individuals taken from holes are frequently aggressive. It is a peculiar phenomenon of wild yabby populations that numbers can appear to change dramatically over a very short time. A lifeless dry creek or lake will fill with water from floods or heavy rain and suddenly teem with yabbies. This 'boom and bust' phenomenon is not properly understood. Complete immersion in water is not essential to life for the yabby. If its gills are kept moist (humid air is sufficient), it can absorb oxygen from the air and survive for many months out of water. To breed, however, it must be in water.

Freycinet, Louis de—a member of Baudin's 19th century French expedition to the Southern Land. Freycinet conducted a close-in survey of the Australian coastline, after being placed in command of the schooner, Casuarina, purchased by Baudin in Port Jackson.

Freycinet National Park—the oldest national park in Tasmania (along with Mount Field). The Freycinet National Park consists of coastal plains and low mountain ranges comprising sediments with significant areas of granite. Vegetation in the park is predominantly dry sclerophyll forest, with patches of wet sclerophyll forest, relict rainforest, coastal heath and dry coniferous forest. Freycinet National Park is important for nature conservation due to its variety of landscape, vegetation communities and correspondingly diverse fauna. It is equally important for cultural heritage conservation, due both to the extensive evidence of occupation by Indigenous peoples and of early European occupation. Aboriginal sites include shell middens, rock quarries, rock shelters and stone artefacts. European sites include huts, mining sites, bayside whaling stations and shipwrecks. The area was reserved as a national park in 1916; Schouten Island was added in 1977; and in 1992, a coastal area including the Friendly Beaches was added to the national park.

Freycinet Peninsula—with European settlement along Tasmania's east coast in the 1820s, the whaling potential of the area was soon realised by colonists. Shore parties were established in sheltered bays during the winter months. At this time, the right whale was passing Tasmania's coastline on its annual migratory trek north from Antarctica. 1850—Sheep and cattle are grazed on the peninsula. 1870s—Tin was discovered on the peninsula—the deposits are worked off and on, with mixed results, until the early 20th century. Now a part of the Freycinet National Park, located on Tasmania’s east coast.

fridge—refrigerator.

fried—1. severely sun-burned. 2. a severe reprimanding, scolding.

fried eggs—flat breasts.

frig around—1. behave foolishly, stupidly. 2. waste time; use one's time ineffectually.

frig around with—toy with; tamper with; interfere with.

frig it up—ruin; mess up; spoil; break; damage; confuse.

frig-up—ruined, failed situation; confusion; a mess.

frigged—ruined; broken; wrecked.

frightfully—very: e.g., He's frightfully handsome!

frill-necked lizard/dragonChlamydosaurus kingii, the reptile emblem of Australia, depicted on the now defunct two-cent coin. They are usually active during the day and move very fast on their two hind legs. Its color matches the land on which it lives, so a frilled lizard from one region may be brighter than another. The male is more colourful than the female They are not poisonous or harmful to man. The frill normally lies in folds around the shoulders and neck, and is "activated" by the lizard when frightened. The mouth wide is supported by a set of cartilaginous rods connected to the muscles of the tongue and jaws in such a manner that, when the mouth gapes widely, the frill is extended, ruff-like around the head (like an umbrella), displaying a broad, rounded expanse of bright orange and red scales. The frill is also believed to aid in the regulation of body temperature. Habitat is tropical to warm temperate dry forests, woodland and savannah woodland, usually with an open shrubby or tussock grass understorey, this being found in northern Queensland and the Northern Territory.

frillie/frilly—frill-necked lizard.

fringe—1. bangs. 2. an area of sparse settlement bordering the arid Australian inland.

fringe lilyThysanotus tuberosus, perennial herbs with 'lily-like' flowers that are characterised by the distinctive fringed margins to the flowers. T. tuberosus is the most commonly encountered species. It has narrow, linear leaves to about 50cm long arising from a tuberous rootstock. The flowers occur on branched stems up to 80cm long, each stem bearing up to eight flowers. Flowers are mauve to purple, about 25mm diameter and usually occur in spring and early summer. Each flower only opens for a single day but new flowers are produced over an extended period. Fringe lilies are not often seen in cultivation despite their obvious beauty. Generally they have proved to be difficult to maintain in cultivation. Widespread in grasslands and woodlands in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Thysanotus is a genus of about 47 species all of which occur in Australia. Two of these species also occur outside of Australia.

fringe myrtleCalytrix tetragona, the most widespread member of its genus. Calytrix consists of about 75 species, all endemic to Australia, with the greatest concentration being in the south-west corner. Most are small to medium shrubs with star-like flowers ranging in colour from white to yellow, pink to red, and purple. The flowers appear in Spring and occur in massed clusters, often obscuring the foliage.

fringe player—(Australian Rules football) player not picked for a team regularly.

fringe-dweller—1. person who, through association, benefits from other people, groups, clubs etc without actually contributing anything of value. 2. Aborigine (or other) who lives on the edge of society without taking (or being permitted) an active part in that society.

fringed mantis orchidCaladenia falcata, a tuberous, perennial herb, 0.2m—0.4m high. Flowers are green, red, occurring Sep-Oct. Grows in grey or yellow sand, clayey loam, laterite, around granite outcrops, ridges, adjacent to watercourses. Distribution: south-west Australia. Also known as forest mantis orchid.

fringing reef—there are three main types of reefs in the Great Barrier Reef region, fringing reefs, mid-shelf reefs and outer barrier reefs. Fringing reefs occur in the inshore sections of the Great Barrier Reef. Usually they are associated with the many high continental islands that scatter the region's coast, but rarely, these reefs occur adjacent to the mainland, such as the reefs at Cape Tribulation. They usually have complex coastlines, high tidal currents and high coastal run off. Such conditions are conducive to a variety of communities that are adapted for silty conditions. Species diversity can be very high, but generally is lower than other reef areas.

frizzle—(of a meal) burn, spoil, over-cook.

frog-march—to hustle someone forward, after seizing from behind and pinning the arms or seizing by the scruff of the neck and the back of the trousers.

frogshit—nonsense; rubbish; insincere talk.

from arsehole to breakfast-time—all over; completely: e.g., He was covered in mud from arsehole to breakfast-time.

from go to whoa—from the beginning to the end: e.g., He's been nothing but a nuisance from go to whoa!

from pillar to post—1. aimlessly from one place to another: e.g., He's been going from pillar to post all his life. 2. from one predicament to another.

from the get-go—at or from the start (of something).

Frome, Edward—soldier, surveyor. Frome arrived in South Australia in 1839 as its third surveyor-general. He made several exploratory trips into the interior of South Australia and travelled in the course of his survey duties. In 1843 Frome sought unsuccessfully to locate the southern boundary of the eastern branch of the assumed 'horseshoe' Lake Torrens and to determine the nature of the country to the east. He reported 'no country … was available for either agricultural or pastoral purposes'. The sketches he made during his journeys are of historical and geographical interest. Frome returned to England in 1849.

front bench—the foremost seats in a parliament, occupied by leading members of the government and opposition. The term refers to the ministers and shadow ministers who traditionally sit on the front benches in each House.

front-bencher—member of the front bench.

front (up)—1. to appear before a court on a charge. 2. to put in an appearance, often in the face of adversity or discomfort: e.g., He didn't front for the test because he didn't study.

frostie/frosty—a cold bottle or can of beer.

froth and bubble—nonsense; idle, insincere, inconsequential talk.

fruit bat—(see: flying fox).fruit block—a fruit farm; orchard.

fruit cocky—a fruit farmer; orchardist

.fruit for the sideboard—extras; perks; a bonus; luxuries.

fruit-salad—mongrel; cat or dog of mixed, unknown breeding.

fruiterer—a dealer in fruit; greengrocer.

Fry's whistling frogSphenophryne fryi is a small, narrow-mouthed frog from Cape York Peninsula which lays its eggs on land in damp, quiet places, such as under leaf litter. The tadpole never leaves the egg capsule and eventually tiny, fully-formed frogs hatch.

fubsy—fat; obese.

full—drunk; intoxicated.

full as a fairy's phonebook/pommie complaint-box/state-school hat-rack/the family jerry—1. very full. 2. drunk; intoxicated. 3. extremely well fed.

full as a goog—very drunk.

full bottle on—expert.

full of airs and graces—conceited; affected in manner; pompous.

full of (oneself)—smug; conceited: e.g., He's so full of himself since he was promoted.

full points—1. (acknowledgement of) a minor victory or praiseworthy act: e.g., Full points to him for standing up for himself! 2. (Australian Rules football) a goal.

full quid—mentally astute; in complete control of one's faculties: e.g., I don't think he's quite the full quid.

full stop—1. a punctuation mark (.) used at the or an abbreviation. 2. a complete cessation.

full toss—(cricket) a ball pitched right up to the batsman.

full

up to dolly's wax/pussy's box—1. to have satisfied one's hunger; to have eaten sufficiently. 2. totally full.

Full-Blood—a racially derogatory term used to define an Aboriginal person of 'pure', 'unmixed' inheritance.

fungus-face—man with a beard.

funnel-web spider—the most notorious members of Australian spider fauna, although found only in eastern states. Not all species are known to be dangerous, but several are renowned for their highly toxic and fast-acting venom. The male of Atrax robustus, the Sydney funnel-web spider, is probably responsible for all recorded deaths (13) and many medically serious bites. Antivenom is held at major city and regional hospitals, and there have been no recorded deaths since its introduction in 1981.

funnies—cartoons, comic-strips, especially in the newspapers.

Furneaux, Captain Tobias—(1735-1781), English navigator, was born at Swilly near Plymouth on the 21st of August 1735. He entered the Royal Navy, and was made a commander in 1771. He commanded the Adventure, which accompanied Captain Cook in Cook's second voyage. On this expedition Furneaux was twice separated from his leader (February 8-May 19, 1773; October 22, 1773-July 14, 1774, the date of his return to England). On the former occasion he explored a great part of the south and east coasts of Tasmania, and made the earliest British chart of the same. Most of his names here survive; Cook, visiting this shoreline on his third voyage, confirmed Furneaux's account and delineation of it (with certain minor criticisms and emendations), and named after him the islands in Banks Straits, opening into Bass Strait, and the group now known as the Low Archipelago. After the Adventure was finally separated from Cook's Resolution off New Zealand in October 1773, Furneaux returned home alone, bringing with him Omai of Ulaietea. This first South Sea Islander seen in the British Isles returned to his home with Cook in 1776-1777.

Furneaux group of islands—the remnants of a land bridge that joined Tasmania to mainland Australia, some 12,000—18,000 years ago. European discovery of the uninhabited islands took place in 1773, when Tobias Furneaux, commander of Captain Cook’s support ship, became separated from the Endeavour in fog. The first settlers in the Furneaux group were sealers. The sealers often kidnapped Aboriginal women to live with and work for them. The last sealing licences were issued in 1828, and in 1833 the remnants of the Tasmanian Aboriginal population were forcibly removed to Settlement Point on Flinders Island. By 1847, the settlement was abandoned and the surviving 45 Aborigines were sent to Oyster Cove on the east coast of Tasmania. The Furneaux Group of islands is located in the eastern Bass Strait.

furphy—1. an early water-cart (made by Furphy, Victoria). 2. wild rumour; tall story; false report. A term from WWI, when diggers gathered around the water cart to pass on news as well as pass the time with tall stories.

FURTB—full up ready to bust—very full (of food).

fuschia heathEpacris longifolia, a small to medium shrub to approximately 1m high x 1-2m wide, although it can reach up to 2m high, especially amongst other shrubs. The tubular flowers are usually red with white tips but also occur in various shades of pink and even all white. It flowers all year with heavier flowering in winter and spring. The pendant bells are very attractive to honeyeaters, especially eastern spinebills. Leaves are small and triangular, bending back and ending in a sharp point. This species has long. arching branches which can become straggly. Grows naturally in sandy situations but it also performs well in heavy red clay soil. Distribution: Predominantly from the sandstone areas around Sydney from the coast to the Blue Mountains. Also found along the north coast and in the ranges bordering Queensland. Also known as native fuschia.

fussed—worried; concerned: e.g., I'm not fussed what we do tonight.

future act—as defined by s233 of the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth), it is a proposed activity or development on land and /or waters that may affect native title: by extinguishing it, or by creating interests that are inconsistent with the existence or exercise of native title. Generally, rights to be informed and consulted about future acts are given to native title claimants. In the case of some future acts, including the grant of mining or exploration rights and some compulsory acquisitions of native title, the future act can not validly be done unless the right-to-negotiate process in the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) is followed.

fuzz-wagon—distinctively marked police-car.

fuzzy wuzzy—1. unstable; vague; the state of being following a late or drunken night. 2. anything soft, fluffy to the touch. 3. native of New Guinea; during WWII they helped Allied troops, and were dubbed 'Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels'.

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