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Jenolan Caves

Jenolan Caves



Jabila Mine—a major-production uranium mine owned and operated by Energy Resources of Australia Ltd (ERA), along with the nearby Ranger mine. According to ERA's figures, Jabila will yield about 99,000 tons of uranium in the course of its 30-year run and will leave about 21 million tons of tailings. The uranium oxide produced from Jabila will go where the Ranger product goes: abroad to fuel reactors in the world's nuclear-electrified countries, of which the most deeply committed are France, Japan, Finland, Sweden, Taiwan, South Korea, Chile and Belgium. Some uranium from Ranger has also gone to electric utilities in the United States. But the mine tailings from Jabila with their remnant radioactivity will stay at Kakadu.

Jabila Mineral Lease—owned by Energy Resources of Australia Ltd (ERA) it abuts the northern boundary of the Ranger Mineral Lease. The Jabila lease pre-dates and is surrounded by the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1991 ERA purchased the Jabila Mineral Lease located some 22km north of the existing Ranger facilities. However the Act carried a provision to extinguish the right of the Mirrar people to withhold their consent to mining of uranium at Ranger. The Jabila deposit is located adjacent to the floodplain of the Magella Creek, a tributary of the East Alligator River in Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory. It is 230km east of Darwin and just 20km north of Jabiru.

jabiru—1. Ephippiorhyncus asiaticus, Australia's only representative of the stork family and one of the world's largest, at up to a metre and a half tall. Jabirus have a massive bill, long bright red legs, and boldly marked black-and-white plumage—iridescent on the head and neck. They are a shy and retiring species. Usually inhabiting shallow wetlands, jabirus use their long legs to forage in water up to half a metre deep where they search for fish, crustaceans, insects and snakes. They are excellent flyers and young birds sometimes turn up far outside the species' usual range. The jabiru's nest is a huge structure made of sticks and is usually placed high in a tall and secluded tree. They lay about four eggs in a clutch with both the male and female taking turns to incubate. 2. in Aboriginal Dreamtime legends 'the companion'. 3. (cap.) a 13sq km lease within the 20,000sq km Kakadu National Park. The township of Jabiru was created for the workers and families of three uranium mines that were to proceed at that time under three different companies (Ranger, Jabila and Koongara). The town is now home to employees and families of Energy Resources of Australia, local tourist and business operators, Commonwealth and Territory Government departments, Parks Australia and Aboriginal administrations, among others. To protect the surrounding park certain restrictions are placed on domestic plants and pets. Modelled on suburban Canberra and named after Australia's only stork. Jabiru was completed in 1982. Responsibility for administration and municipal services subsequently passed to the Jabiru Town Council.

Jabuda—alternate spelling of Ajabatha.

Jack—1. the familiar form of John, especially typifying the common man or the male of a species: e.g. I'm all right Jack! 2. a nickname for a kookaburra.

Jack Jones—alone; on one's own.

jack of—fed up with; totally exasperated with; sick and tired of: e.g. I'm jack of this job!

Jack tar—a sailor.

jack up—1. raise the price suddenly and unexpectedly. 2. become indignant and refuse to cooperate; revolt (against): e.g. It's about time everyone jacked up about the spiralling cost of living. 3. refuse; resist.

Jack, Robert Logan—was born at Irvine in Ayrshire, Scotland on 16 September 1845. He was educated at the Irvine Academy and Edinburgh University, and after some 10 years' experience with the geological survey of Scotland was appointed geologist for northern Queensland in March 1876. He arrived in the colony in April 1877 and soon afterwards was made geologist for the whole colony. An early piece of work was an examination of the coal resources of the Cooktown district, and in August 1879 he began an exploring expedition to the most northerly part of Queensland in the hope that payable goldfields might be found. A second expedition was made towards the end of the year and though no field of any great value was discovered, much was added to the knowledge of the country. The party endured many hardships and Jack himself was speared through the shoulder by hostile Aborigines. In 1880 he published a work on the Mineral Wealth of Queensland and a Handbook to Queensland Geology appeared in 1886 and in 1892 with Robert Etheridge Jr. The Geology and Palaeontology of Queensland and New Guinea was published in two volumes. He resigned his appointment in 1899. At the time of his death he had recently completed his Northmost Australia, an interesting account of exploration in northern Queensland, especially valuable for its accounts of the less known men, which was published in London in 1921. He was elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 1870. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Glasgow University, and in conjunction with Etheridge was awarded the Clarke Memorial Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1895.

jack-in-office—a self-important minor official.

jackaroo—originally, a white settler who chose to live alone beyond the boundaries of close settlement. Only later did it come to mean a young man seeking to gain experience by working cheaply at a sheep or cattle station. Sometimes the jackaroo was the bloke starting at the bottom, learning the trade with a view to becoming a station manager. The Oxford English Dictionary seems to think that jackaroo comes from a combination of the common name "Jack" and the word "kangaroo". However, the Australian National Dictionary tells a different story (and is more likely to be correct). It says that jackaroo comes from an Aboriginal word jagara, meaning "a wandering white man".

jackass morwongNemadactylus macropterus, a fish found in Australia's southern waters from Sydney to Rottnest Island in Western Australia. On the East Coast some fish have been caught as far north as Moreton Bay, Queensland. They generally occur as individuals or large schools which inhabit deep coastal waters (25m to a depth of more than 200m), and occasionally enter large coastal bays. Maximum weight of about 4.5kg and up to 70cm in length. Head and body are a greyish/silver colour. Some fish may have a yellow/red tinge on the upper body. Jackass morwong possess a dark band across the top of their head extending to the base of the pectoral fins. The seventh ray of the pectoral fin is greatly elongated and extends past the rest of the fin.

jackie/jacky—kookaburra.

jackshay—tin pot used for brewing tea in the outback.

jacky—in names of small animals.

Jacky Howe—the standard navy-blue or black singlet worn by workers, labourers, farmers etc.

jacky lizard/dragonAmphibolurus muricatus, a medium sized agamid lizard with heterogenous dorsal body scalation. Snout-vent length: 100mm; ail length: approximately 200mm; Mass: 30g (up to ~ 67g). Males generally have relatively larger heads than females. Appearance is quite varied, from a pale grey to a dark brown (almost black). They have a dorso-lateral stripe from the nape to the base of the tail, which can be either continuous or broken into segments. The jacky dragon can be found in dry sclerophyll forests, rocky ridges and coastal heathlands. They are semi-arboreal and can be seen basking on fallen or standing timber, or perched on shrubs and other low vegetation. These perches allow them to scan their surrounds for prey and predators. They shelter in hollows or beneath low vegetation, rocks, timber and bark. Distribution extends from south-eastern South Australia, along the coast to the Clermont district in Queensland. Also known as tree dragon, stonewalker.

Jacky-Jacky—in 1848, as the Assistant-Surveyor of New South Wales, Edmund Kennedy led an expedition to explore Cape York Peninsula. In the previous year he had discovered the Thomson River and established that the Barcoo River was part of Cooper's Creek. They arrived at Rockingham Bay (north of Townsville) in May, and then, after much privation and toil, reached Weymouth Bay, where they established a depot. Kennedy and four others—Costigan, Dunn, Luff and an Aboriginal guide, Jacky-Jacky—left this depot in an endeavour to reach Cape York, where a relief ship was expected. Kennedy and Jacky-Jacky continued north after leaving the others at Shelburne Bay. Only Jacky-Jacky reached Cape York, as Kennedy was killed in a skirmish with Aboriginals. Jacky-Jacky guided the ship's relief party to Shelburne Bay but Costigan, Dunn and Luff had perished. At the Weymouth Bay depot only two survivors were found.

Jacky-winterMicroeca fascinans, a small, brown flycatcher. Found in open woods, often with large fallen branches, and savannah, from SE New Guinea near Port Moresby, and in Australia; absent from humid forest and extreme desert. Also known as brown flycatcher, brown flyrobin, white-tailed flyrobin, Australian brown flycatcher.

Jagera language group—the Logan region of Brisbane, Queensland was originally inhabited by Aboriginals from two major language groups: the Yugambeh and the Jagera. Clans of the Turrbal, Jagera and possibly Jambe tribes lived in the area, and several of these lived in parts of the Bulimba Creek catchment. (Aboriginal locality names for portions of the catchment include: 'boolimbah' means 'place of the magpie lark'.) The Gnaloongpin clan of the Turrbal tribe is thought to have occupied the northern area, and the Chepara clan of the Jambe tribe is thought to have lived in the area from Holland Park south to the Logan River. There seems to have been a good relationship between the early settlers and the Aboriginal people. Settlers were always glad to see the Aborigines as they were able to exchange flour, sugar and tobacco for fish, kangaroo tails, crabs and honey. Early settlers also told how the Aborigines came into the area to gather the bunya nuts. Middens containing discarded shell and bunya nuts have been found at Kuraby.

Jagungal Wilderness—a large wilderness region north of the Main Range. While being designated 'wilderness', there are several roads crossing the area which are used by both parks management and Snowy Mountain Authority vehicles. The area contains Australia's highest peaks and is threatened by heavy tourism development despite being in Kosciuszko National Park. With about 70% of the region being open grasslands, it is possible to walk almost anywhere. The Jagungal Wilderness area is located just north of Mount Kosciuszko in southern New South Wales.

Jaitmatang—an Aboriginal people who occupied a region in the Australian Alps within what is now the state of Victoria. The tribe lived most of the year on the lower plateaus, visiting the heights only as snow melted in the spring. The Jaitmatang tribe are the traditional owners of much of the country north of the Great Dividing Range in the upper headwaters of the Murray River, including the towns of Omeo, Benambra and Corryong. It has been suggested that they and the Duduroa were the same tribe.

jake—OK; all right; satisfactory; acceptable: e.g. She'll be jake!

jam tart—(rhyming slang) heart; sweet-heart.

jam tart attack—(rhyming slang) heart attack.

jam tomorrow—a pleasant thing often promised but usually never forthcoming.

jam-jars—eye-glasses prescription spectacles that are very thick and solid-looking; a nick-name for a person wearing them.

JAMBA—the Japan-Australia Migratory Birds Agreement.

Jamberoo Valley—The Aboriginal people who lived in this area called it Jamberoo—'cluster of stars'. Prior to the arrival of Europeans the Jamberoo Valley was inhabited for at least 20,000 years by the Tharawal people, who moved backwards and forwards from the coast to the hinterland. The most significant early explorer was Charles Throsby who travelled south from the Moss Vale area into Kangaroo Valley in 1818. He was en route to Jervis Bay. He sent his servant Joseph Wild, accompanied by local Aborigines, to explore the Robertson area which became known as the Yarrawa Brush. In 1830 Surveyor Robert Hoddle and a gang of convicts cut a bridle path down Saddleback Mountain. It was part of a planned track from Cowpastures (now known as Camden) down the Illawarra escarpment to Kiama and Gerringong. Bounded by the famous Saddleback Terry's Mountain and Jamberoo Mountain at the back and sides, Jamberoo opens out to a flat space of land that stretches straight to the sea on the north-eastern end. Many valleys and creeks have created ideal pockets for settlement in the area, the principal being the Minnamurra River, Fountaindale, Turpentine Creek and, to a lesser extent, Hyams and Burra Creeks. The most significant early explorer was Charles Throsby, who travelled south from the Moss Vale area into Kangaroo Valley in 1818. He was en route to Jervis Bay. He sent his servant Joseph Wild, accompanied by local Aborigines, to explore the Robertson area, which became known as the Yarrawa Brush. In 1830 Surveyor Robert Hoddle and a gang of convicts cut a bridle path down Saddleback Mountain. It was part of a planned track from Cowpastures (now known as Camden) down the Illawarra escarpment to Kiama and Gerringong. In 1834 Governor Richard Bourke was so enamoured by the Illawarra's natural lushness and its agricultural successes that he bestowed the title 'Garden of New South Wales' on the region. The 1861 Land Act of Sir John Robertson (former Premier of New South Wales) encouraged free selection by offering unreserved blocks of crown land at £1 per acre. All the landowner had to do was pay a 25 per cent down payment,  live on the land for three years, and make certain stipulated improvements.

Jaminjung—alternate spelling of Alura.

jammies—pyjamas.

jammy—1. covered with jam. 2. lucky; profitable.

janmarda—(see: onion grass).

Janszoon, Willem—the first European in history to map and record Australia. He sailed from the Indonesian island of Banda in 1606 as captain of the Duyfken, a small ship belonging to the Dutch East India Company on a deliberate voyage of exploration. Though he was on the Cape York coast during the north-west monsoon season, when it was a dangerous lee shore, he produced a detailed chart easily reconcilable with a modern chart, and better than anything produced until the 19th century. It is true that he wrote the name "Nova Guinea" on that land we now call Cape York Peninsula, but he did not mean the island we now call New Guinea. The most accurate and up-to-date maps of the world then available were produced in the Netherlands. However, what lands existed to the south and east of the Spice Islands was a matter of geographic speculation. All cartographers agreed that there was a great southern continent filling much of the Southern Hemisphere. Perhaps following information provided by Indonesian mariners, it was agreed that a large promontory of the southern continent, or perhaps an island separated from the rest of the continent by a long, narrow strait, lay to the south-east of the Spice Islands. It was speculated that King Solomon's fabled gold mines were there- that like Guinea in west Africa it would be a source of much gold—that it would be a "new Guinea". That was the unknown Nova Guinea that Janszoon was sent to search for and found. It lay entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, further south than the island that later became known as New Guinea. It does show an accurate charting of Torres Strait. However, no reputable Dutch map showed Cape York joined to New Guinea before Tasman's voyage and even after Tasman, not many cartographers accepted the connection. For Willem Janszoon, Nova Guinea was a part of Terra Australis. Its western coast lay about 800 miles east-southeast from the Banda Islands. His was the first of the deliberate, planned voyages exploring Australia, ordered by the Dutch East India Company.

Jaralde—an Aboriginal people from the east side of Lake Alexandrina and the Murray River; on Narrung Peninsula; east to Meningie and Cookes Plains (more than fifteen hordes). The name is said to have originated in the phrase Jarawalangan? 'Where shall we go?' said by a people who arrived on the seashore at the mouth of the Murray River from the interior, and did not know how to go on.

Jardine River—Queensland's largest perennial stream in terms of volume of water discharged. The Jardine River divides the tip of Cape York Peninsula from the rest of the Cape. North of the Jardine is known as the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA). The river was named after the Frank Jardine who first drove cattle north on the arduous trip to the tip of Cape York. Frank Jardine later settled at Somerset and became the Government's representative on Cape York and of Thursday Island. The Jardine River is situated west of the Great Dividing Range in Cape York Peninsula, Far North Queensland.

Jardine River National Park—one of the most important wilderness catchment systems in Australia. Over 70% of the area has very high wilderness quality; it contains a major proportion of wilderness heathlands in Australia. Topography includes swamps and heathlands with tropical vegetation, including many varieties of New Guinea origin. Tropical rainforests are found on deeper sands. Substantial forests of melaleucas are often in association with a wide range of other species. Sedgelands are dominated by red-fruited saw-sedge. Freshwater mangroves and lianas are common features along streams as are patches of gallery rainforest. The Jardine River National Park is located in the catchment area of the Jardine River on the Cape York Peninsula, Far North Queensland.

Jardwa—variant spelling of Jarwadjali.

Jardwadjali—an Aboriginal people of the Grampians Range in south-western Victoria. Aboriginal people have had an association with the Grampians, traditionally known as Gariwerd, for thousands of years. The numerous local clans have left evidence of their lives in the region, including ancient oven mounds, scatterings of stone left over from tool making, rock art sites and the beliefs handed down from one generation to the next. Descendants of the original clans of Gariwerd continue their strong connection with the region. In 1991, the traditional names of 49 places and features within the Grampians region were restored, recognising the important heritage and mythology of western Victoria's Aboriginal people. Today approximately 60 rock art sites, containing more than 4000 different motifs, have been identified in the Grampians National Park. One of the most important sites in the region, and in Victoria, is Bunjil's shelter. The massive rock overhang of Bilimina Shelter was once a meeting place for the Jardwadjali people, and is covered with over 2500 motifs that consist of red ochre bar strokes. Manja Shelter is on the western side of the Grampians. Manja symbolises the link between the Jardwadjali and their land. It is believed that the hand stencils were a way of recording a visit to this incredible rock overhang. This rock site also has more hand stencils than any other site in Victoria.

jarmies—pyjamas; night dress.

jarrahEucalyptus marginata, one of the commonest and most well-known trees of the south-west. This tree usually grows up to 40m high and has rough, greyish-brown, fibrous, vertically grooved bark which it sheds in long flat strips. Jarrah usually forms forest or woodland on gravelly soils but sometimes also on sand or loam. The species is widespread, growing from Perth to Albany, with outlying populations as far north as Mount Lesueur and as far inland as Jilakin Rock. For many years it has been the principal hardwood tree harvested for timber. Its richly coloured and beautifully grained timber is sought after for cabinet making, flooring and panelling, and is resistant to termites. Before the era of bitumen roads, famous roads in cities such as London and Berlin were paved with blocks of jarrah. Also known as Swan River mahogany.

jarrah forest—for hundreds of thousands of years the only jarrah forest in the world has been evolving in the south-west corner of Western Australia. This unique forest ecosystem, called 'jarrah' after the major tree species, Eucalyptus marginata, has thrived in adversity: growing on infertile, often salt-laden soils, adapting to annual drought, and coping with occasional wildfire. At the time of European occupation there were about 3.9 million hectares of jarrah forest and woodland, extending from north of Perth to the south coast. Beneath the canopy of giant trees, which often includes other tree species such as marri and wandoo, a wondrous profusion of wildflowers, birds and mammals has flourished in ecosystems of great diversity, complexity and interdependence. There are about 1200 species of vascular plants found in the jarrah forest, 29 mammal species, 45 reptile species, 17 frog species, 4 fish species and 150 bird species. Looked after for more than 40,000 years by the Nyoongar people of the south-west, this forest achieved a grandeur which can rarely be seen today. In the 170 years since European colonisation, about half of the original jarrah forest has been destroyed, mostly for agriculture. Much of what remains has been heavily exploited and continues to be degraded. It is hard now to find areas of jarrah forest which resemble the forests we took upon colonisation: forests full of giant, straight-trunked trees 800-1000 years old. Faced with the prospect of continued logging and mining (mainly for bauxite), too-frequent burning, soil nutrient loss and salinisation, the spread of dieback and other introduced pests and diseases, climate change, more roads, power lines, dams and the numerous other forms of human use and intervention, we must ask: can our remaining jarrah forests survive as rich, dynamic and diverse ecosystems? Not only have the myriad values once offered by the jarrah forest been seriously diminished; the entire jarrah forest ecosystem is at risk.

javelin fishPomadasys kaakan take their name from the large, strong anal spine that characterises the group generally; this spine has some fancied resemblance to a spear, or javelin. They differ from the snapper-like fishes in possessing weak jaw teeth and strong pharyngeal ones. They occur in estuaries and inshore waters of the entire Queensland coastline, and are of greater importance to anglers than to commercial fishermen. They are sometimes confused with the true bream from which they are readily separable, if only because of their square-cut (truncate) tails. All the javelin-fish are capable of emitting loud grunts, caused by grinding together the powerful teeth in the gullet. Also known as grunter, spotted grunter bream, Queensland trumpeter.

Jawoyn—an Aboriginal people who traditionally occupied an area of about 34,000sq km—from the upper reaches of the South Alligator River to the north, to the Katherine Gorge area in the south, in what is now known as the Northern Territory. The Jawoyn culture recognised the danger inherent in the abundant uranium on their land; these sites were regarded as sacred. The Jawoyn had a responsibility toward all other people to protect them from potential sickness and death caused by disturbance to the sacred sites. Contact by Europeans commenced sporadically in the late 19th century and, as with other areas in Northern and Central Australia, was often characterized by brutality, including massacres and rape. This "invasion" by outsiders was also accompanied by introduces diseases, to which the Jawoyn had little or no immunity, as well as disruption to the local subsistence economy. From the 1930s horticultural activities occupied the rich river flats along the Katherine region, dispossessing the Jawoyn. Mining came to the region with the Pine Creek goldrush of late last century, which led to a dramatic reduction in the Aboriginal population of the region. This process was accelerated by the events of World War II when hundreds of Aboriginal people were forced into camps by the Army. In the 1950s uranium miners came into the northern areas of Jawoyn land. Until the 1950s Katherine was still a small town—less than 1000 people. But it was a town in which Aboriginal people were not welcome. There was a curfew for all but a few Aboriginal people; many lived in bush camps scattered on the edge of town; many more had been herded into government settlements such as Tandangal and Beswick. It was from this period that utilization of bush tucker began to decline, and the dependence on introduced Western foods began to intensify, leading to more disease—from diabetes to gout. Even more debilitating, from the 1960s legislative and social changes introduced legal drinking for Aboriginal people. Within a short period, many had adopted the binge drinking habits of white stockmen. Today, Aboriginal people have a life expectancy fully 20 years less than that of non-Indigenous Australians. And, although the infant mortality rate has declined, it is still three times the national average. Over the last decade or so the Jawoyn have been actively working to rebuild themselves as a nation. They are known for the unusual relationship they forged with a a local mining corporation. When that corporation wanted to gain access to Jawoyn land, rather than sell the land outright, they instead negotiated to allow the company to use the land for mining. In exchange, they received a number of concessions from the mining group, including commitments towards hiring Aboriginal workers, providing scholarships, and promoting the area as a tourist and environmentalist area.

jay-dub—Jehovah's Witness.

jelly—1. Jello or gelatin. 2. gelignite, a form of explosive.

jelly baby—a jelly-like sweet in the stylised shape of a baby.

jemmy—a burglar's short crowbar, usually made in sections.

Jenolan Caves—discovered by Europeans in 1838, they are one of the premier tourist attractions of New South Wales, located 182km west of Sydney, in the Main Dividing Range. The caves are developed in the northern and southern sides of a natural bridge (The Grand Archway) in folded, near vertical late Silurian limestone. There are two large caverns open to daylight, the Devils Coach House (maximum 49m high, 122m long, 37m wide at its northern entrance), and the Grand Archway (137m long, 12m to 21m high, 11m to 55m wide). A large cave remnant, Carlotta Arch, is like a window looking out high above the Devils Coach House. There are nine caves regularly shown to tourists, although several hundred of various sizes have been found in this area. On the northern side of the Grand Archway are Lucas, River, Pool of Cerberus, Orient, Ribbon and Temple of Baal Caves; and on the southern side are Chifley, Imperial and Jubilee Caves. The north-side caves include those with high domed chambers (Temple of Baal and Orient) as well as tunnel-like caves, while the south-side caves are all tunnel forms. The spectacular cave formations (speleothems) have been produced by crystallisation of calcite (and sometimes aragonite) from solutions which dissolved calcium carbonate while seeping through the limestone, and include stalactites, stalagmites, columns, shawls, helictites, straws, calcite pool crystals, canopies, cave pearls and rim pool dams. Some of the speleothems are richly coloured red, brown and yellow by iron oxides and hydroxides (especially Orient Cave), as well as pure white. Well-known features are the Minaret and Grand Column (River Cave), Broken Column and the Cathedral (Lucas Cave), Angel's Wing (Temple of Baal), Indian Canopy, Persian Chamber and Pillar of Hercules (Orient Cave), and the Fluted Column and Crystal Cities (Imperial Cave). Underground rivers have also played a role in enlarging and sculpturing the caves.

jerboa mouseNotomys alexis lives in the deserts and semi-deserts of the Australian midlands. It mainly looks like a forest mouse with elongated hind legs and very big ears. The back side is brown, the belly white, and the tail ends in a small tuft. They are very social animals. A group of adult animals, both males and females live together in harmony and show little aggression. All the animals, including the pups, sleep together in one nest. Jerboa mice are nocturnal and mostly active during dusk and at night. They usually walk on all fours, which results in a hopping movement because of the difference in length between the front and hind legs. However, when the animals are in a hurry they will only use their hind legs and can make huge jumps. In nature the jerboa mouse eats berries, seeds and all kinds of plant parts. When it has rained and there is enough food available, these animals will start to reproduce. After a gestation period of about 32 days, 3 to 4 pups are born. After about 20 days they open their eyes and after another 10 to 15 days the youngsters can leave their parents. Also called Australian hopping mouse.

jerry to—to be suddenly wise alert to: e.g. It was some time before I jerried to who he was.

jerryang—(see: little lorikeet).

jersey—a garment that is pulled over the head (first recorded in 1907) made from "Jersey worsted" (fine knitted cloth originating on the Channel island of Jersey ). The cloth was so named as long ago as the 16th century and in the 1930s 'jersey' was applied to the garments we know by that name.

Jervis Bay National Park—sections of the park fringe Jervis Bay, St Georges Basin and ocean beaches. The area is rich in Aboriginal heritage, includes important wetlands—including Lake Wollumboola—and preserves a flourishing diversity of plants and animals. It lies next to the Commonwealth-managed Booderee National Park. Booderee is a local Aboriginal word meaning 'bay of plenty'. Jervis Bay National Park and Botanic Gardens were handed back to the Wreck Bay Aboriginal community in December 1995. They are now jointly managed by the Wreck Bay community and Environment Australia under the internationally-acclaimed model applied at Uluru-Kata Tjuta and Kakadu national parks. Each year more than 750,000 people visit the park and botanic gardens, which feature shell midden sites, more than 180 species of birds, 37 species of mammals and beaches with some of the whitest sand in Australia. Located 170km south of Sydney, 25km south of Nowra.

Jervis Bay Territory—(JBT) comprises about 7400ha on the southern shores of Jervis Bay, approximately 200km south of Sydney by road. The Territory consists of a mainland area of just over 6500h, about 800ha of marine waters, and Bowen Island (51ha). Ninety per cent of the Territory has been granted to the Wreck Bay Aboriginal Community. The land and water comprising the Booderee National Park was then leased back to the Director of National Parks. The lease provides for the park to be jointly managed between the Director and representatives of the Wreck Bay Community.

Jew lizard—(see: bearded dragon).

jewel beetlesBuprestidae, a family of beetles known for their glossy, iridescent colors. The family is among the largest of the beetles, with some 15,000 species known in 450 genera. The larger and more spectacularly colored jewel beetles are highly prized by insect collectors. Shape is generally cylindrical or elongate to ovoid, with lengths ranging from 3mm to an impressive 100mm, although most species are under 20mm. A variety of bright colors are known, often in complicated patterns. The larva bore through roots, logs, stems, and leaves of various types of plants, ranging from trees to grasses. The wood boring types generally favor dying or dead branches on otherwise healthy trees, while a few types attack green wood; some of these are serious pests capable of killing trees and causing major economic damage. Classification is not yet well-established, although there appear to be five main lineages, which may be considered subfamilies, possibly with one or two being raised to families in their own right, while other systems define up to 14 subfamilies. Castiarina is Australia's richest jewel beetle genus.

jiffy bag—strong, lightweight bag for sending items through the post.

jig—wag school; play truant.

jig about—fidget.

jigger—1. something for which one cannot immediately remember the correct name. 2. break; ruin; destroy; spoil: e.g. Don't touch or you'll jigger it for good!

jiggered—1. broken; ruined; spoiled. 2. exhausted; tired; worn-out. 3. dead.

jigglers—tea bags.

jillaroo—female jackaroo.

Jim Jim Falls—the falls are raging with water in the Wet season when they cascade over the Arnhem Land escarpment. At this time of the year the falls can be viewed only from the air. The 1km return walk through monsoon forest and over boulders to a deep plunge pool surrounded by spectacular 150m high cliffs is possible only during the Dry, when water ceases to flow. Located in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory.

jimjams—extreme nervousness tension worry fright.

Jimmies/Jimmy Brit(t)s—(rhyming slang) shits; state of anger anxiety: e.g. He's got the Jimmy Britts because he lost his money at the Casino.

Jimmy Dancer—(rhyming slang) cancer.

Jimmy Woodser—a lone drinker in a bar or an alcoholic drink taken without company.

jimmygrant—(rhyming slang) an immigrant.

Jindyworobak—a nationalistic Australian literary movement that sought to promote Aboriginal ideas and customs, particularly in literature. They were active from the 1930s to around the 1950s. The movement intended to combat the influx of "alien" culture, which was threatening local art. It started off as a literary club in Adelaide, founded in 1938, and was supported by many Australian artists, poets, and writers. Many were fascinated by Aboriginal culture, and desired to improve the white Australian's understanding and appreciation of it. The founder of the movement, poet Rex Ingamells, applied the name in 1937, which means "to join" or "to annex" in an Aboriginal language. Many other poets were involved in the movement, such as Roland Robinson, Ian Mudie, Nancy Cato, and Judith Wright. The movement failed to make a lasting impression, and its dissipation heralded the arrival of modernist painting in Australia, as well as jazz.

jingling johnny—a shearer who uses hand (blade) shears, which consist of two blades arranged similarly to scissors except that the hinge is at the end furthest from the point (not in the middle). The cutting edges pass each other as the shearer squeezes them together, and shears the wool close to the animal's skin. Blade shears leave a lot of wool on a sheep and are suitable for cold climates where the sheep needs to keep some protection from the elements, and for those areas where no machinery is available.

jink—(Rugby football) manoeuvre, change direction.

jittaHalfordia sclerophyla. The very hard wood of this tree was used by Aborigines for making swords, spear points, music-sticks, knives and fish-hooks. The wood burns very well and was used for firesticks to carry fire from place to place and as torches.

jitterbug—nervous tense anxious worried person.

job (someone)—one hit punch, bash (someone).

Job's comforter—a person who under the guise of comforting aggravates distress.

jobbery—corrupt dealing.

jobs for the boys—profitable situations etc to reward one's supporters.

Jock—nickname for a Scottish man.

jocky spider—(see: red-back spider).

joe—1. ewe; female sheep. 2. man; bloke; fellow.

Joe Blake—(rhyming slang) 1. a snake. 2. the shakes.

Joe Bloggs/Blow—1. the average citizen man in the street. 2. fictitious person used as an example.

joes—1. shaking; trembling; the D.T.'s—usually from excessive amounts of alcohol. 2. the blues; depression.

joey—1. a young kangaroo or wallaby—the joey is born after a gestation of 29—38 days. The kangaroo is a marsupial mammal, which means that the baby does not develop attached to a placenta inside the mother's uterus, but is born early and spends most of its development inside a pouch. When ready to give birth, the female leaves her mob, finds somewhere quiet and licks her pouch and birth canal clean. The tiny joey, pink and naked, measuring only 2.5cm in length and weighing 1g, is born headfirst and grasps its mother's fur with the claws on its forefeet. The mother offers no help at all. In about 3 minutes, it has dragged itself up to the pouch, entered it and clamped tightly to one of the four teats, which swells in the mouth. The joey spends 300 days or more inside the pouch, growing very slowly for the first 3 months. After 15 weeks, faster growth begins when the mother's milk increases its fat and protein content. The joey continues to suckle for another 6 months after leaving the pouch; it can run about and jump easily in and out of the pouch. 2. a young possum. 3. any young creature.

john—1. a policeman. 2. the toilet.

John DoryZeus faber, one of the most highly prized of all finfish. Found in the western Pacific, eastern Atlantic and Indian Oceans, it's known as Peter fish or St Peter's fish in many European languages due to the story that the distinctive dark spot on either side of its body is from the thumb print of St Peter the fisherman. The origin of its English name is a bit hazier, though the most likely explanation is a reference to the greeny-silver hue of its smooth shiny skin, from jaune doré, French for 'golden yellow'. Another explanation is Janitore, Latin for 'door-keeper', another allusion to St. Peter, the keeper of Heaven's gates. It has a highly compressed head and body; a large, oblique mouth and bucklers on the second dorsal and anal fin bases; a large, dark grey blotch ringed with white on the side of the body; and is dark brown as a juvenile and silvery as an adult. The John Dory grows to 66cm in length. It is a highly regarded table fish and fetches high market prices. In Australia it occurs in depths of 1m to 150m from southern Queensland, around the south of the country and north to the central coast of Western Australia.

John Hop/Hopper—(rhyming slang) cop; copper; policeman.

Johnny—nickname for any youth man fellow.

johnny-cake—damper bread cakes the size of scones.

Johnson's MousePseudomys johnsonii is endemic to rocky country, primarily within the Murchison Range, which is located south-east of Tennant Creek. The Murchison and Davenport ranges together form a distinct bioregion within the Northern Territory.

Johnstone's freshwater crocodileCrocodylus johnsoni is a small cousin of the Australian saltwater crocodile. The males reach lengths of 2.4m—3m and weigh 90kg. The females reach lengths of 2.3m and weigh 45kg. They grow very slowly and may not reach full length for 20 years; they live for 50 years. Johnstone's freshwater crocodiles have unusually narrow, tapering snouts, and the mouth is lined with 68-72 sharp teeth. They have strong legs with clawed, webbed feet; the tail is very powerful; and the skin is light brown in colour with dark bands on the body and tail and sometimes on the snout. These freshwater crocodiles are one of the few species that can gallop on land, reaching speeds of 18km/h. They are found only in Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, predominately in freshwater lakes, billabongs, swamps, rivers, creeks and wetlands, although not by choice—the Australian saltwater crocodile keeps them out of more saline areas by outcompeting them. They are not fussy over water and will live in muddy, clear, fast, still, deep or shallow water. After the rainy season they move to more permanent areas of water that will not dry up in the dry season, and will rarely eat and hardly grow until they return at the start of the next rainy season. They can also be cannibalistic and will eat juveniles. They do not hunt on land but will wait at the water's edge for prey, typically fish, to get close and then will attack with a lightning-fast snap of the head.

join the queue!—ironic, exasperated, etc expression to another indicating that you are both waiting for the same thing or both have the same purpose: e.g. So you're trying to get your money back from Nick—join the queue!

Joint Defence Facility Nurrungar—(JFDN) one of three Australia/U.S. Joint Defence facilities in Australia. Every Australian at the base had an American counterpart to ensure that intelligence information was equally presented to both units. At the peak of Nurrungar's presence almost 700 personnel from the United States Air Force (USAF) and Australian 1 Joint Communications Unit (1JCU) were stationed at Nurrungar. In October 1999 JDFN operations ceased; early in the following year the compound was closed indefinitely.

Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap—(JDFPN) the largest of three joint Australia/ U.S. bases located in Australia. Established in 1968 as a CIA intelligence base, it consists of a large computer complex with eight radomes protecting its antennae from the elements and satellite reconnaissance. Situated in Northern Territory, 19km south-west of Alice Springs, the Joint Defence Facility is a major contributor to the economic health of Alice Springs and the broader region. From a combined workforce of 454 in 1978, the base is now a major employer, providing work for some 700 United Sates and Australia Defence personnel. With immediate family members taken into account, the total American population of Alice Springs currently numbers approximately 2000. Expenditure of salaries, local utilities, housing rentals and airfares contributes approximately $12 million a year to the local economy. A government-to-government agreement between the USA and Australia on the establishment of the facility requires purchases be made "in-country" wherever possible.

joint management—(National Parks) a model of park management that was pioneered by the Australian Government, beginning in 1978 with Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory. The Australian Government has since entered into joint management with the traditional owners of Uluru-Kata Tjuta and Booderee national parks. These arrangements have been recognised internationally as providing the model for involving Indigenous people in managing protected areas. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park and its Board of Management won UNESCO's highest award, the Picasso Gold Medal in 1995, for outstanding efforts to preserve the landscape and the Aboriginal culture of the park as well as for setting new international standards for World Heritage management.

joint management agreement—an agreement between Indigenous and non-Indigenous parties usually for the joint management of land of traditional significance to the Indigenous parties.

joke Joyce!—a consoling exclamation to someone who missed the intended humour in something you said.

Jonah/Jonas—a person believed to bring bad luck and misfortune; a jinx.

joondaPrunus turneriana, a fast growing rainforest tree to 25m, with a large, spreading crown when mature. It grows in well developed rainforest on a variety of sites. Cut bark has the odour of almonds. Black fruits of the species are quite large and are laterally compressed. The poisonous kernel was processed by the Aborigines to provide a starchy food. The flesh of the fruit was used raw for treating toothache. Wood from the flange buttresses was used for making boomerangs. Also known as almond, almondbark.

Joseph Bonaparte Gulf—inlet of the Timor Sea, having a maximum width of 360km, indenting the north coast of Australia for 160km. Although its western limit is generally agreed to be Cape Londonderry in Western Australia, its eastern limit is variously placed between Cape Scott and Point Blaze in Northern Territory. First entered by a Dutch navigator in 1644, it was visited in 1803 by Nicolas Baudin, a Frenchman, who named it after Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte.

journo—journalist.

JP—Justice of the Peace

Judas hole—a peephole in a door.

jug—1. prison. 2. a jug of beer served in hotels.

juggle—the pennies; budget carefully.

jurrpa—translates as 'dreams' in the Pitjantjatjara language groups, the time of creation when ancestral beings rose from the featureless earth and wandered across its surface. The adventures of these ancestors, who displayed all the traits of human frailty and heroism as they fought hunted and made love, not only established the law under which all of life was structured but physically shaped the landscape. Although without a written language to pass on these laws, the Aboriginal people had their songs, ceremonies and oral traditions. These creation stories were executed as rock art with ochres, clays and charcoal. The same materials were used to decorate the body during ceremonies or to adorn weapons, shields and sacred objects. The stories were also depicted during elaborate ceremonies, including initiations, as huge dot art sand paintings. Carefully prepared over many days they were used during song and ritual to pass on knowledge of the Dreaming, and would be effaced by the dancing and eventually the forces of nature. The art is the very soul of this ancient continent. For Warlpiri and many other desert people, there are two complementary and mutually dependent forms of ownership of jurrpa and country: kirda (owners) and kurdungurlu (guardians). Each artist can only paint stories belonging to his family or kin group, and some paintings are produced as collaborative works by several people of the same group. Painting is an absorbing communal activity as it is a means of passing on the stories history and laws to the younger generations while the painting is in progress. The symbols used in each painting can also be governed by tribal law, although typical desert symbols prevail.

Julia Creek dunnartSminthopsis douglasi, an endangered marsupial. The Julia Creek dunnart is shy and seeks shelter during the day in cracks in the soil. The average head-to-tail measurement is 230mm, with the tail accounting for almost half the entire measurement. Tan fur covers its back, fading into a lighter tan or white on the underbelly. There is a dark brown, almost black, triangle of fur that starts at the nose and extends between the short ears of this species. The average weight of a male is 55g; females weigh an average of 5g less than males. The Julia Creek dunnart is a carnivore that prefers insects but is capable of catching small vertebrates twice their size. Young are able to catch their own insects at about 10 weeks. Breeding is possible year-round and increases after rain falls. The gestation period lasts around 12 days and 8 young are possible for each litter. A newborn breathes through its skin. Currently there are only 11 known locations where the this species can be found, all of which are located within 100km of Julia Creek. Although the classification of this species is "endangered" and it is extremely rare, there is no threat of extinction. Julia Creek is located in a part of north-west Queensland known as the Mitchell grass plains.

jumble sale—sale of miscellaneous second-hand items; garage/yard sale.

jumbuck—a sheep.

jump on your head!—an expression of scornful dismissal—get lost!

jump the queue—take unfair precedence; obtain unfairly before one's turn.

jump to it—act promptly and energetically.

jump up—(in Australian pidgin) come back to life.

jump-up—a sudden steep rise; an escarpment.

jumped-up—conceited; highly self-opinionated.

jumper—a garment that is pulled over the head (first recorded in 1907). The Oxford English Dictionary says that jumper was used of "a kind of loose outer jacket or shirt" from the mid-19th century. But even before that there was a short coat worn by men called a jump (or jump coat). A citation from 1688 says a jump was a coat that extended to the thighs and was open or buttoned down the front. Why this garment was so called no one knows but lexicographers speculate that it might be a corruption of the French word jupe which was an early 17th century name for a woman's jacket or bodice.

jumping-jack wattleAcacia enterocarpa, a small, dense, multi-branched spreading prickly shrub up to 1.5m tall. Flowering occurs in May to October. The seed pods are typically zig-zag shaped and bear a resemblance to the fire cracker known as the Jumping-jack, hence the common name. It occurs in small, isolated populations on Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula and in the south-east of South Australia, and is also found in western Victoria. It occurs in many different habitats, from red gum and blue gum woodlands to mallee, and is often found on fertile soil. This wattle is found in three national parks and wildlife reserves and in one Heritage Agreement. Most of the other populations are restricted to roadsides and rail reserves.

jungle-juice—any strong inferior alcoholic drink.

Junjuwa Aboriginal Community—most of the surviving Bunaba-speakers—numbering around 100 in all and primarily older people—are now living in the Junjuwa Aboriginal community. Located in Fitzroy Crossing, Victoria.

junket—1. a dish of sweetened and flavoured curds, often served with fruit or cream. 2. a feast. 3. a pleasure outing.

just a mo/sec/tick—just a moment/second; a very short time.

just not on—an emphatic denial, refusal or expression of distaste or displeasure: e.g. What he did is just not on!

just now—at this moment.

just quietly—between ourselves: e.g. Just quietly I think she looks awful.

just say the magic word—just say yes.

just the job—exactly what is wanted.

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