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Pink Giant Nymphaea Water Lily

Pink Giant Nymphaea Water Lily (Nymphaea sp.)

Pfeffer's flamboyant cuttlefishMetasepia pfefferi, a species of cuttlefish occurring in tropical Indo-Pacific waters off northern Australia, southern New Guinea, as well as numerous islands of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. The type specimen, a female, was collected off Challenger Station 188 in the Arafura Sea at a depth of 51m on October 9, 1874, as part of the Challenger expedition. M. pfefferi is a robust-looking species, having a very broad, oval mantle. Arms are broad and blade-like, with arm pair 1 being shorter than the rest. The protective membranes are narrow in both sexes. Arm suckers are arranged in four rows. The modified arm used by males for fertilisation, called the hectocotylus, is borne on the left ventral arm. The oral surface of the modified region of the hectocotylus is wide, swollen, and fleshy. This particular species of cuttlefish is the only one known to walk upon the sea floor. Due to the small size of its cuttlebone, it can float only for a short time. Most sources agree that M. pfefferi grows to 8cm in mantle length, although others give a maximum mantle length of 6cm. The dorsal surface of the mantle bears three pairs of large, flat, flap-like papillae. Papillae are also present over the eyes. The cuttlebone of this species is small, two-thirds to three-quarters the length of the mantle, and positioned in its anterior. Characteristic of the genus Metasepia, the cuttlebone is rhomboidal in outline. Both the anterior and posterior of the cuttlebone taper gradually to an acute point. The dorsal surface of the cuttlebone is yellowish and evenly convex. The texture throughout is smooth, lacking bumps or pustules. The dorsal median rib is absent. A thin film of chitin covers the entire dorsal surface. The cuttlebone lacks a pronounced spine; if present, it is small and chitinous. The limbs of the inner cone are very short, narrow, and uniform in width, with the U-shape thickened slightly towards the back. The cuttlebone of M. pfefferi does not possess an outer cone, unlike that of most other cuttlefish species. M. pfefferi has been recorded from sand and mud substrate in shallow waters at depths of 3-86m. The species is active during the day and has been observed hunting fish and crustaceans. It employs complex and varied camouflage to stalk its prey. The normal base color of this species is dark brown. Individuals that are disturbed or attacked quickly change colour to a pattern of black, dark brown and white, with yellow patches around the mantle, arms, and eyes. The arm tips often display bright red coloration to ward off would-be predators. Animals displaying this colour pattern have been observed using their lower arms to walk or "amble" along the sea floor while rhythmically waving the wide protective membranes on their arms. This behavior advertises a poisonous nature. A toxicology report has found and confirmed that the muscle tissue of flamboyant cuttlefish is highly toxic, making it only the third cephalopod found to be toxic. Research by Mark Norman with the Museum Victoria in Queensland, Australia, has shown the toxin to be as lethal as that of fellow cephalopod, the blue-ringed octopus.. Copulation occurs face-to-face, with the male inserting a packet of sperm into a pouch on the underside of the female's mantle. The female then fertilises her eggs with the sperm. The eggs are laid singly and placed by the female in crevices or ledges in coral, rock, or wood. Freshly laid eggs are white, but slowly turn translucent with time, making the developing cuttlefish clearly visible. From birth, juvenile M. pfefferi are capable of the same camouflage patterns as adults.

Phar Lap—arguably the greatest racehorse ever. In his four years on the race track, Phar Lap won 37 of the 51 races in which he started, including fourteen in a row in 1930-31. He is the only horse ever to have been favourite for the Melbourne Cup three years in a row.

phascogale—either of two species of largely arboreal, carnivorous marsupials of the genus Phascogale, the tuan or the wambenger.

Phascolarctos stirtoni—a megafauna koala similar to the existing species, but about one third larger.

Phascolomys medius—a megafauna koala, of up to 80kg, which lived from 2 million years ago (Pliocene) to 40,000 years ago (Pleistocene).

pheasant coucalCenttropus sinesus is a clumsy, glossy black bird with conspicuous chestnut wings and a long, broad, black, graduated tail. One of the non-parasitic cuckoos, and largely terrestrial. Affects open forests, scrub and bush country about human habitations. Singly or in pairs, stalks along the ground or clambers and hops with agility amongst branches of shrubs in search of food: caterpillars, large insects, lizards, young mice, and birds eggs and nestlings. Particularly destructive to the last two. Its call is a deep, resonant coop-coop-coop etc in series of 6 or 7 and up to 20, repeated quickly in varying tempo. Two birds frequently join in an uneven duet. Also utters a variety of harsh croaks and gurgling chuckles.

Phillip, Captain Arthur—born in 1738, Phillip was educated at the Greenwich Hospital School, part of Greenwich Hospital, and at the age of 13 was apprenticed to the merchant navy. The British Government took the decision to found the Botany Bay colony in mid-1786. Phillip's fleet sailed from Portsmouth in May 1787. Phillip was appointed captain of HMS Sirius and named Governor-designate of New South Wales, the proposed British colony on the east coast of Australia, by Lord Sydney, the Home Secretary. Phillip had a very difficult time assembling the fleet which was to make the eight-month sea voyage to Australia. Everything a new colony might need had to be taken, since Phillip had no real idea of what he might find when he got there. There were few funds available for equipping the expedition. His suggestion that people with experience in farming, building and crafts be included was rejected. Most of the 772 convicts (of whom 732 survived the voyage) were petty thieves from the London slums. Phillip was accompanied by a contingent of marines and a handful of other officers who were to administer the colony. The leading ship, HMS Supply, reached Botany Bay, setting up camp on the Kurnell Peninsula, on 18 January 1788. Phillip soon decided that this site, chosen on the recommendation of Sir Joseph Banks, who had accompanied James Cook in 1770, was not suitable, since it had poor soil, no secure anchorage and no reliable water source. After some exploration Phillip decided to go on to Port Jackson, and on 26 January the marines and convicts were landed at Sydney Cove, which Phillip named after Lord Sydney. Shortly after establishing the settlement at Port Jackson, on 15 February 1788, Phillip sent Lieutenant Philip Gidley King with 8 free men and a number of convicts to establish the second British colony in the Pacific at Norfolk Island. The early days of the settlement were chaotic and difficult. With limited supplies, the cultivation of food was imperative, but the soils around Sydney were poor, the climate was unfamiliar, and moreover very few of the convicts had any knowledge of agriculture. Farming tools were scarce and the convicts were unwilling farm labourers. The colony was on the verge of outright starvation for an extended period. The marines, poorly disciplined themselves in many cases, were not interested in convict discipline. Almost at once, therefore, Phillip had to appoint overseers from among the ranks of the convicts to get the others working. This was the beginning of the process of convict emancipation, which was to culminate in the reforms of Lachlan Macquarie after 1811. Lord Sydney, often criticised as an ineffectual incompetent, had made one fundamental decision about the settlement that was to influence it from the start. Instead of just establishing it as a military prison, he provided for a civil administration, with courts of law. Arthur Phillip drew up a detailed memorandum of his plans for the proposed new colony. In one paragraph he wrote: "The laws of this country [England] will of course, be introduced in [New] South Wales, and there is one that I would wish to take place from the moment his Majesty's forces take possession of the country: That there can be no slavery in a free land, and consequently no slaves", and he meant what he said. Nevertheless, he had to adopt a policy towards the Eora Aboriginal people, who lived around the waters of Sydney Harbour. Phillip ordered that they must be well-treated, and that anyone killing Aboriginal people would be hanged. In June 1790 the Second Fleet arrived with hundreds more convicts, most of them too sick to work. In late 1792 Phillip, whose health was suffering from the poor diet, at last received permission to leave, and on 11 December 1792 he sailed in the ship Atlantic, taking with him many specimens of plants and animals. The European population of New South Wales at his departure was 4,221, of whom 3,099 were convicts. The early years of the colony had been years of struggle and hardship, but the worst was over, and there were no further famines in New South Wales. By the time Phillip sailed for home, the colony was taking shape, with official land-grants and systematic farming and water-supply. Phillip arrived in London in May 1793, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests. He retired in 1805 and was granted a pension of £500 a year. He died in Bath in 1814.

Phillip Island—a large island known for its Little Penguin colony. The 26km long, 9km wide island forms a natural breakwater for the shallow waters of Westernport. The island's geography consists largely of open and flat countryside, covering an area of some 10,000ha. The first permanent settlement was made in 1842 when the McHaffie brothers were granted a pastoral lease covering almost the entire island. It served as a sheep run until 1868, when the island was surveyed and made available to selectors. A number of early settlers were forced to abandon their land due to drought, with an exodus occurring in the 1870s. Large areas of property were acquired by a small number of landowners, and by 1902 there were no more than 50 settlers. Development of the island was delayed until the 1920s when an access track to the penguin colony was established, attracting a steady stream of wealthy tourists. The large colony of Little Penguins remains the major attraction to this day, and the island is the single most popular tourist destination in Australia. Located at the entrance to Westernport, Phillip Island is connected to the Victorian mainland by a 640m-long bridge.

Phillip Island Nature Park—is renowned as home to one of Australia¹s most popular wildlife attractions, the Penguin Parade. A mere 90 minutes drive from Melbourne, the nature park covers 2,750ha of Phillip Island—Victoria’s wildlife haven. The Park is an island adventure featuring wildlife reserves, wetlands and breathtaking coastlines.

phyllodes—nodular branch tips that function as leaves. Phyllodes are a highly modified form of leaf.

physical jerks—exercises designed to keep fit.

piccadilly—(rhyming slang) chilly; cold.

pick the eyes out of—select the best, choicest out of what is offered.

picker-up—a shearing shed-hand who gathers up the shorn fleeces.

pickie—1. photograph. 2. movie, cinema film.

pictures—the cinema.

piddle—do in an ineffective, trifling manner: e.g., Stop piddling about and get on with the job properly!

pie on—good, adept at or keen on: e.g., He's pretty pie on the piano.

pie-eater—an Australian.

piece—1. a woman. 2. a type of person: e.g., He's a nasty piece. 3. a hand-gun, pistol.

piece of work—person of a specified type: e.g., He's a nasty piece of work.

pied butcherbirdCracticus nigrogularis is a medium-sized black and white bird 33—36cm. It has a full black hood, dark brown eye and long, hooked, grey and black bill. The pied butcherbird's voice is a beautiful, melodious fluting, sometimes given in turn by several individuals. Many people consider this the best singer of Australia's birds. They inhabit drier forests and woodlands and often approach parks and houses. Its distribution extends throughout the Australian mainland, with the exception of most of the southern and south-eastern coastline, Tasmania and the more arid areas of the inland. Butcherbirds are aggressive feeders, preying on small reptiles, mammals, frogs and birds, as well as large insects. Most food is caught on the ground. The birds sit on an exposed perch and swoop down on their prey. Hunting groups may consist of several birds from a large group, which may comprise three or four adults and several young birds, but birds may also hunt alone or in pairs. Butcherbirds get their name from their habit of hanging captured prey on a hook or in a tree fork or crevice. This 'larder' is used to support the victim while it is being eaten, to store several victims or to attract mates.

pied currawong—the bird Strepera graculina, a large, mostly black bird, with a bright yellow eye. Small patches of white are confined to the under tail, the tips and bases of the tail feathers and a small patch towards the tip of each wing (visible in flight). The bill is large and black and the legs are dark grey-black. Both sexes are similar, although the female may sometimes be greyer on the underparts. Young pied currawongs are duller and browner than the adults. Two other species of currawong are found in Australia—grey currawong (Strepera versicolor) lives in Australia's south, while the black currawong (S. fuliginosa), is restricted to Tasmania. Both of these species differ from the pied currawong in lacking white on the rump. The grey currawong is variable across its range, grey in the east, blacker in Tasmania and browner in the west, with regional differences in the amounts of white in the wing. Another Australian species that is sometimes confused with the pied currawong is the Australian Magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen, although the two are quite different in plumage. The magpie has a grey and black bill, a red-brown eye and large areas of white on the body. Pied currawongs are found throughout eastern Australia, from northern Queensland to Victoria, but is absent from Tasmania. It prefers forests and woodlands, and has become well adapted to suburban areas. Throughout its range it is common and familiar. Outside the breeding season large flocks of pied currawongs form, but at most other times these birds are seen alone, in pairs or in family groups. In the north of their range they tend to stay in the same areas year round, while in the south, they may move from the higher areas to the lowlands, especially in the colder regions. Also known as bell magpie. It is curious and playful, flighty and intelligent—and inclined to chase other birds for play, which is often misinterpreted as aggression.

pied goose—(see: magpie goose).

pied honeyeaterCerthionyx variegatus; t he male pied honeyeater is a distinctive small, black and white honeyeater with white wing-bar, rump and tail-panels, and a bluish-grey wattle below the eye. The female is greyish-brown, with a strong pattern of pale edging to feathers on the wing. Distribution is widespread throughout acacia, mallee and spinifex scrubs of arid and semi-arid Australia. Occasionally occurs further east, on the slopes and plains and the Hunter Valley, typically during periods of drought. Feeds on nectar, predominantly from various species of emu-bush; also from mistletoes and various other shrubs; also eats saltbush fruit, berries, seed, flowers and insects. Highly nomadic, following the erratic flowering of shrubs. Constructs a relatively large cup-shaped nest, usually robustly made of grasses and fine twigs bound with spider webs, in the fork of a shrub or tree up to 5m above the ground.

pied oyster-catcher—the bird Haematopus longirostris, of coastal Australia.

piffle—1. nonsense; rubbish; worthless and insincere talk. 2. (as an exclamation) disbelief; scorn.

piffling—trivial; paltry.

pig in a poke—something bought without being inspected; a bad deal or transaction.

pig-footed bandicootChaeropus ecaudatus. The size of a kitten, it had long, slender limbs, the hind feet bearing a single, elongated toe like a tiny horses’ hoof, while the forefeet bore two digits resembling miniature cloven hoofs. Pig-footed bandicoots were never common, although the species was rather widespread. They appear to have been principally vegetarian, taking grass seeds in the wild, although in captivity they ate lettuce, bulbs and grasshoppers, and according to one observer they drank a good deal of water. By day they sheltered in a grass nest, from which they emerged in the evening to feed. Twins may have been normal, with breed occurring between May and June. The animal has not been sighted since 1901, and is presumed extinct.

Pigeon House Mountain—part of mountainous, eastern escarpment separating the coastal plain from the interior tableland. Pigeon House rises steeply to 720m above sea level, and from the summit can be seen a spectacularly 360 degree panorama the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Budawang Mountains and the Clyde River Valley to the west. Situated within the Morton National Park, approximately ½ hour's drive south-west from Ulladulla and one hour north-west from Bateman’s Bay, NSW. Pigeon House was sighted by Captain James Cook upon his journey along the eastern shores of Australia. Pigeon House has recently been renamed "Didhol" out of respect to the elders of the Yuin nation, the Aboriginal elders past and present who originated from the area Ulladulla was built upon. The traditional name of the peak, Didhol, means "Woman's Breast", owing to the mountain's clear resemblance to a woman's breast.

pigeon pair—1. a son and a daughter. 2. any matching pair of things.

pigeonberry ashElaeocarpus kirtonii, a medium-to-large rain forest tree, that grows from the Barrington Tops in New South Wales to the Gladstone area in Queensland. This is one of the largest laurels in Australia. Mature specimens usually reach around 35m tall, though there is a 57-m tree at Murray Scrub near Kyogle close to the NSW-Queensland border. It grows between 500-1050m altitude. Trees of the genus Cryptocarya are mostly from the tropics or warmer temperate areas. This tree is unusual as it grows in cooler regions, subject to frost and rare snowfall. It's also an unusually tall member of the genus. The trunk is often buttressed, and the grey or white cylindrical trunk is a conspicuous feature in the rainforest. Leaves are 6 t-13 long, white and veiny underneath. The small cream flowers form in early summer, the fruit is a black drupe maturing in the cooler months. Germination occurs easily after removal of the black aril. Also known as rose maple, rose walnut.

pigfaceCarpobrotus spp, a genus of large, trailing, succulent perennials with large daisy-like flowers. The name refers to the edible fruits. It comes from the Greek "karpos" (fruit) and "brota" (edible). The fruit of C. glaucescens, fleshy, fig-like, yellowish when ripe is noted for having salty fruit, a rare property in fruits. They have long stems that root at the nodes, with triangular leaves, occasionally tinged with red, that varies depending on the growing conditions. The flowers are a light purple, 4-6cm diameter, solitary, on ends of short lateral branches, with a fleshy calyx and many shining, narrow strap-shaped petals about 2cm long in several rows. Most species bloom in early summer and will take some frost. The leaves act as a water storage organ, enabling the plant to survive hot dry summers on coastal cliffs and sand. Most species grow in coastal regions, and do well in sandy areas. Carpobrotus acinaciformi is often used for ground cover due to its fast growth, ground hugging characteristics and resistance to drought and fire. The juice from the leaves can be used as a mild astringent, and when mixed with water the juice can be used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and stomach cramps. An ancient remedy for constipation is to eat the fruit with brackish water. It can be used as a gargle for sore throat and laryngitis, and mild bacterial infections of the mouth. The leaf juice can be used externally for burns, abrasions, open cuts, grazes, mosquito bites and sunburn. It is also used to treat ringworm, eczema, dermatitis, herpes, thrush, cold sores, cracked lips, chafing, skin conditions and allergies. Syrup made from the fruit is said to have laxative properties. A mixture of leaf juice, honey and olive oil in water is an old remedy for TB. Also known as ice plant. Widespread in coastal areas on rocky headlands and sand dunes in Tasmania, Victoria and SA.

piggery—1. a pig-breeding farm. 2. piggishness.

pike on (someone)—1. to let (someone) down. 2. withdraw timidly from.

pikelet—a small, thin pancake eaten cold and buttered.

piker—person who lets others down by opting out of an arrangement or agreement.

Pilbara—often represents the vastness of WA, as this red, sandy tract of country is host to some of the most isolated settlements in Australia. The inland mining town of Marble Bar is reputedly Australia's hottest town, with summer temperatures consistently over 38 degrees Celsius. The main attractions of the Pilbara are its stunning national parks. Travelling north-east from Carnarvon is the Mount Augustus National Park, home to the world's biggest rock. Mount Augustus is actually twice the size of Uluru and is estimated to be one billion years older. Ancient Aboriginal art and rock paintings can be viewed at various points along the mount. Billabongs surrounding the mountain act as a magnet for birdlife.

Pilbara Block—the north-western edge of the Pilbara Block is coastal stretch, while the north-eastern boundary is against Phanerozoic Canning Basin. It is more or less bounded on the southern and eastern sides by the Proterozoic Hamersley-Bangemall Basin. Overall, rocks of the Pilbara Block appear to be the oldest in Australia. The block has outcrops of three main rock types—the greenstones, granites and clastic sedimentary rocks. Greenstones and granites are common in most Archaean terranes of the world. Granitic rocks are exposed mainly in the northern and central parts of Pilbara Block. Granitic batholiths engulf folded and metamorphosed schistose and gneissose rocks. Granite bodies of two different ages are found in the block, the older 3.1 Ga and the younger 2.6 Ga. Ultramafic, dolerite and felsic volcanic rocks occur locally at places. Two fold axes are common in the block -- northerly and easterly in the east and easterly to north-easterly in the west.

Pilbara Craton—there are four major components to the Pilbara Craton. (1) Hamersley—a mountainous area of Proterozoic sedimentary ranges and plateaux with mulga low woodland over bunch grasses on fine-textured soils, and snappy gum over spinifex on skeletal sandy soils of the ranges. (2) The Fortescue Plains—alluvial plains and river frontages. Salt marsh, mulga-bunch grass and short grass communities on alluvial plains. River red gum woodlands fringe the drainage lines. This is the northern limit of mulga. (3) Chichester-Archaean granite and basalt plains supporting shrub steppe characterised by ranji bush over soft spinifex hummock grasses. Snappy Gum tree steppes occur on ranges. (4) Roebourne-Quaternary alluvial plains with a grass savannah of mixed bunch and hummock grasses, and dwarf shrub steppe of Acacia translucens over soft spinifex. Samphire, sporobolus and mangal occur on marine alluvial flats. Arid tropical with summer rain.

Pilliga Aboriginal Reserve—(see: Minnom Mission).

Pilliga mousePseudomys pilligaensis, first identified in 1975, has a very restricted distribution, and is known only from the Pilliga Scrub near Narrabri in NSW. It has been recorded in mixed cypress/eucalypt forest and woodland, in the Merriwindi State Forest and the Pilliga State Forest. The mice have a head and body length of around 70mm and a tail almost as long again. They are elusive, and until the reasons for their limited distribution and numbers are determined, the Pilliga mouse is on the vulnerable species list.

Pilliga Nature Reserve—based on the Pilliga Sandstone and is underlain by silty sandstones, claystones and shales. The vegetation is dominated by narrow-leafed ironbark, broad-leafed ironbark and red ironbark woodland. Small areas of Blakely's red gum, yellow box, white box and angophora are also present. White cypress and black cypress are present in the sub-canopy along with the cycad. A number of endangered fauna are present, including the endemic Pilliga mouse, eastern pygmy possum, koala, glossy black-cockatoo, regent honeyeater and turquoise parrot. The reserve also supports populations of the endangered brush-tailed rock wallaby, red-necked wallaby and swamp wallaby. The Borah Creek Road was originally an old Cobb & Co coach track.

Pilliga Scrub—when Captain Cook landed on Australia's shores, the region known historically as the 'Pilliga Scrub' was a vast, 2 million acre area of woodland and open forest on the central northern slopes of NSW. Today, all that remains of these woodlands are precious, isolated remnants in a sea of agricultural and grazing lands.

Pilliga State Forest—the state forests of The Pilliga, commonly known as the Pilliga Scrub, constitute some 3000km² of semi-arid woodland in temperate north-central New South Wales. It is the largest such continuous remnant in the state and forms a major component of the water recharge area for the Great Artesian Basin. The geology of the area is dominated by Pilliga sandstone, a coarse red-to-yellow Jurassic sandstone containing about 75% quartz, 15% plagioclase and 10% iron oxide, although local variations in soil type do occur. Sandstone outcrops with basalt-capped ridges are common in the south, while the Pilliga outwash areas in the north and west are dominated by alluvium from flooding creeks. Gilgais occur in some areas. In the west "sand monkeys" (abandoned creek beds) are common. In the east is a heavily eroded sandstone mountain range, visible in outcrops such as those around Gin's Leap between Baan Baa and Boggabri. The forest contains at least 900 plant species, including many threatened species. Some areas of the forest, particularly in the western Pilliga, are dominated by cypress-pine (Callitris spp.). However there are a variety of distinct plant communities in the forest, some of which do not include Callitris, such as the she-oaks, while eucalypts dominate the canopy throughout the forest. Black cypress and narrow-leaved ironbark trees dominate, interspersed with heathlands. Fauna recorded from the Pilliga Nature Reserve include at least 36 native and nine introduced mammals, 50 reptiles and at least 15 frogs. Threatened animals such as the koala, mallee-fowl, brush-tailed phascogale, rufous bettong and the rare Pilliga mouse hang on to a precarious existence, in a region where only about 2.3% of the land is protected for nature conservation. A 4909km² tract of land, including the forest and the nearby Warrumbungle National Park, has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because it supports populations of painted honeyeaters and diamond firetails. It also experiences irregular occurrences of endangered Swift parrots and regent honeyeaters, and near threatened bush stone-curlews. Other declining woodland birds present in good numbers include barking owls,glossy black cockatoo, grey-crowned babblers, speckled warblers, brown treecreepers, hooded robins and turquoise parrots. Much of the Pilliga woodland has remained through the last two centuries as old growth, at least prior to major bushfires in 1997. Pilliga State Forest remains open to logging for sawlogs. Another ongoing threat is the burning of cypress pine from the Pilliga area by the State's power stations for the generation of so-called 'green energy'. Fire plays a major role in the ecology of the forest with many plant species depending on fire to regenerate. However in unfavorable conditions fire can be extremely intense, spread very quickly and threaten nearby properties as well as laying waste to entire ecosystems. If intense fires occur less than 15 years apart there can be a loss of plant and animal biodiversity. The magnitude of historical Pilliga bushfires correlates extremely well with the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena, with El Niño (dry) years having the most severe fires. In 1997 a major fire burned close to 1,435km² of the forest. An extremely dry winter and spring in 2006 saw a number of large fires develop, including the Pilliga 4 Fire in November/December which burned out 740km² on just its first day. The forest is located near the towns of Baradine and Narrabri and the villages of Pilliga and Gwabegar. Located on on the central northern slopes of NSW.

pillion—seating for a passenger behind a motor cyclist.

pilot-bird—a rare, dark brown Australian babbler, Pycnoptilus floccosus, with a distinctive, loud cry.

pimp—1. a person who solicits clients for prostitutes. 2. tell-tale; informant: e.g., Who was the pimp who told on me and got me into trouble? 3. to inform, tell tales on: e.g., Don't you dare pimp on me!

pimple on a pumpkin—anything grossly ridiculous or obvious, such as a silly hat, a small head.

pin a medal on (someone)—congratulate (someone); acknowledge (someone).

pinafore—1. an apron, especially with a bib; a woman's sleeveless wraparound washable covering for the clothes, tied at the back. 2. a collarless sleeveless dress worn over a blouse or jumper (in American English, a pinafore is a 'jumper,' while a 'jumper' is a 'sweater').

pinaner—(WA) an Aborigine from the inland.

pinch the eye out of your cock if it wasn't stuck on—(he'd...) pertaining to a person who is a compulsive thief.

pindan—a tract of arid, sandy country characteristic of the SW Kimberley region in northern Western Australia; the low, scrubby vegetation occurring on the sandy soils of such country; any of several plants typifying such vegetation, such as Acacia tumida.

Pine Creek—came to prominence as a major goldfield by 1873, and remained one of the major centres of the Northern Territory's mining industry until the turn of the century. The surface gold disappeared rapidly but the goldfields were kept active by Chinese miners who entered the area in considerable numbers. Although there was a large concentration of miners, the town of Pine Creek was not surveyed until 1888, during the building of the railway from Palmerston to Pine Creek, which was opened a year later. Chinese immigration was stopped in 1889. However, between 1883 and 1889, Chinese labour had been used to build the railway line from Darwin. This was another attempt, albeit unsuccessful, to establish a railway line from Darwin to Port Augusta. Pine Creek derived its name from the local creek, which was crossed in December 1870 by teams constructing the Overland Telegraph Line. By 1980 gold output was only 17 tonnes (0.5 million oz). Not a single mine on the Golden Mile was open, yet by 1990 it had soared to 244 tonnes (7.8 million oz). The renaissance came not just through a higher gold price, triggering fresh exploration that found new deposits, but by the pioneering of a whole new infrastructure of mining finance, complete with gold loans, hedging and the adaptation of new technology to create mobile milling and carbon-in-pulp recovery plants that could be transferred easily from one open pit to another. Low grade open pits, which could be brought quickly into production and often turned a profit within a year, were the heart of the boom that ultimately took Australian production to a new record of 313 tonnes (10.1 million oz) in 1997. It set the pattern for a fundamental new alliance between miner and bullion banker, which was swiftly copied in North America, Africa, Indonesia and Latin America.

Pine Creek bioregion—foothill environments below and to the west of the Western Arnhem Land sandstone massif. Its main defining feature is the highly mineraliferous Pine Creek Geosyncline, comprising Archaean granite and gneiss overlain by Palaeoprotozoic sediments. The major vegetation types are eucalypt tall open forests, typically dominated by Darwin woollybutt and Darwin stringybark, and woodlands dominated by a range of species, with smaller areas of monsoon rainforest patches, melaleuca woodlands, riparian vegetation and tussock grasslands. Characteristic species include the Gouldian finch, hooded parrot and partridge pigeon.

Pine Creek Geosyncline—the oldest rock formations in Kakadu National Park. They date from about 2500 million years ago, about half the age of the earth. The Pine Creek geosyncline is a mixture of sedimentary rock, laid down in a large geological depression (geosyncline), and igneous (volcanic) rocks. The layered sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rock was changed under conditions of extreme heat and pressure into schist, gneiss, quartzite and marble. This was part of a major mountain building event, the Top End Orogeny, about 1800 million years ago. These ancient rocks contain the uranium-bearing bed referred to as the Cahill Formation, source of the Ranger, Koongarra and Jabila deposits. Located in northern Kakadu, Northern Territory.

Pine Gap—nestled in a shallow little valley at the southern foot of the Macdonnell Ranges about twelve miles by air from the Centre of Australia is the Joint Defence Space Research Facility. The apparent surface entrances to this super-technological retreat are located in the vicinity of 23 degrees 48 minutes south by 133 degrees 43 minutes east. It is one of the top three of several top-secret U.S. government-financed 'bases' in Australia. Australians refer to it as "Pine Gap" or just "The Gap". The CIA code name for it is "Merino". The Pine Gap facility's original function was to execute research and development of space defence technology. The primary responsibility for the facility is controlled by the U.S. Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Pine Mountain—a red granite monolith reaching 1062m, located within the northern section of Burrowa-Pine Mountain National Park, NSW, and sits isolated above the upper reaches of the Murray River. The Pine Mountain area is of great botanical importance because a number of rare and endangered species of plants grow there, including the phantom wattle (found only here and in Dora Dora State Forest, NSW), Pine Mountain grevillea and branching grevillea. Black cypress-pines and kurrajongs grow on the dry, rocky slopes. From its summit are exceptional views of the Snowy Mountains and the Upper Murray River. In springtime the mountain is covered in mist and flowers.

pine woodland—(Callitris species) this vegetation community is dominated by either white cypress or Murray pine, and occurs on sandhill soils and sandy red-brown earths, often associated with prior streams. In its undisturbed state this vegetation community is capable of supporting a rich diversity of species of trees, shrubs, groundcovers and climbers.

pineapple bushDasypogon bromeliaefolius is a strange and very rare plant found growing in sandy soil in only a few small areas of Western Australia. A low, tufted shrub, it has the appearance, as suggested by both the Latin and English names, of the top of a pineapple stuck on the top of a short, thin trunk 5cm or so in diameter. The spherical heads of white flowers are carried, almost menacingly, on extraordinarily long, slender, whip-like stalks.


Pinjarra massacre—Western Australia, 1834. Governor (Captain James) Stirling leads mounted police against in a massacre of "troublesome Nyungar". Ever since the small band of settlers rowed up the Swan River looking for good pastoral land, there had been 'trouble' with the Aborigines. The local people had resisted the white advance—cattle, even the occasional white, had been speared. The settlers developed a sense of antagonism and hatred, and were happy to attack and kill Aborigines whenever the opportunity arose. It was in this kind of hostile environment that Governor Stirling responded to continuing requests for military protection from a small group of settlers on the Murray River. Stirling formed a party of about twenty-five whites, a mixture of police, soldiers and a few settlers. Their plan was to 'punish' any Aborigines in the local area in order to drive home the message that white settlers and their cattle must not be attacked or speared. One account of the massacre explained the rationale for the attack as simply that 'the moment was considered propitiously favourable for punishing the perpetrators of such and other diabolical acts.' The party came across a group of seventy Aborigines who, sensing trouble, fled into the bush. Stirling divided the party and attempted to encircle the fleeing group, catching them at a river crossing. When the Aborigines showed signs of retaliation, Stirling and his men opened fire. No-one knows how many people were killed but estimates vary from fourteen to thirty. The remaining Aborigines were rounded up and taken prisoner but soon after this, Stirling decided to set them free 'for the purpose of fully explaining to the rest of the tribe the cause of the chastisement, that had been inflicted.' The 'battle' was regarded by both Stirling and the settlers as a success.

pink—1. (shearing) shear a sheep so closely the skin shows. 2. a young salmon. 3. a minnow.

pink alderGillbeea adenopetala, a smallish tree: height 6m, spread 2m. Ornate new growth is purplish red. Large clusters of tiny white flowers appear in spring followed by small capsules. The genus Gillbeea comprises two species, one in north-eastern Queensland and one in New Guinea.

pink cockatoo—also known as the Major Mitchell cockatoo, after the famous explorer Sir Thomas Mitchell.

pink everlastingRhodanthe manglesii (from Greek rhodon, a rose and anthos, a flower, presumably referring to the flower colour of some species; manglesii, after Capt. James Mangles, 19th century horticultural enthusiast). Rhodanthe is a genus of 46 species, most of which were formerly classified under other genera (mainly Helipterum but also Podotheca and Waitzia). Rhodanthe manglesii, previously known as Helipterum manglesii, is a slender, branching annual species up to about 0.5m high. It has heart-shaped, stem clasping leaves which are up to 50mm long. The flower heads appear mainly in spring and summer and are up to 30mm in diameter comprising white or pink papery bracts around a yellow centre. The flower buds are silvery and are attractive in their own right. This species has been a popular plant in cultivation for many years because of its very colourful display, especially in massed plantings. Distribution: South Western Australia in woodland and grassland. Also known as pink sunray, Mangles' everlasting.

pink fit/kittens—a highly emotional state of mind such as anger, outrage, hysteria.

pink giant nymphaea water lilies—found throughout temperate and tropical regions, there are three species of water lilies indigenous to Australia. Nymphaea is a genus of hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae. The striking, large flowers of the Giant Waterlily grow up to 25-30cm in diameter. They are held some 50cm above both the water’s surface and its enormous toothed, floating leaves. The Giant Waterlily’s natural distribution is south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales, though very similar species previously known as gigantea are found in the Northern Territory and Western Australia. In Indigenous culture, every part of the plant is considered edible.

pink robinPetroica rodinogaster, a bird that resembles the Northern Hemisphere robin, yet is actually a member of the flycatcher family. All feed on invertebrates and, after watching from a low perch, they fly to the ground to capture their prey. In summer when invertebrates are more abundant, they will take them from tree trunks or foliage, or hawk insects from the air.

pink rock orchidDendrobium kingianum, after P.P. King (1791-1856), an Australian rear admiral in the British Navy and an explorer. There are many color forms of this species. The normal flower color is pink, but pure white and almost red forms are not uncommon. The foliage can also range from light green to dark purple. Blooms late winter throughout spring—August to October in its natural habitat. It grows exclusively on rock faces or among the decaying leaf litter in rock crevices. It is a hardy plant often found growing on exposed cliff faces where it is subjected to direct sunlight and extreme heat radiated from the host rock surface. It may also be without water for months at a time. The canes (pseudobulbs) store water and enable the plant to survive these periods of stress. The spongy roots quickly absorb moisture and nutrients when these are available, and as a result small amounts of rainfall and even dew are useful to the plant. During dry periods the roots remain viable and being white in colour reflect some heat. All these adaptive mechanisms enable the plant to survive in a seemingly hostile environment. A period of dryness during the winter is essential to get these plants to bloom in cultivation. Endemic to an area along the east coast of Australia between Rockhampton in Queensland and the Hunter River in New South Wales.

pink ti-treeAgonis parvicepshas small, needle-shaped, compact leaves with small, pink flowers which look like miniature roses. Blooms heavily throughout the winter. Blooms again in summer.

pink-eye/hi—(chiefly in Aboriginal English) a walkabout; a holiday.

pinkie/pinky—1. bilby. 2. cheap or home-made (fortified) wine.

pinko—drunk; intoxicated.

Pinnacles Desert—right in the heart of Nambung National Park, thousands of huge limestone pillars rise out of a stark landscape of yellow sand. In places they reach up to three and a half metres tall. Some are jagged, sharp-edged columns, rising to a point; while others resemble tombstones. The raw material for the limestone forming the pinnacles came from sea shells in an earlier epoch rich in marine life. These shells were broken down into lime-rich sands which were brought ashore by waves and then carried inland by the wind to form high, mobile dunes. Three old systems of sand dunes run parallel to the Western Australian coast, marking ancient shorelines. The oldest of these, known as the Spearwood dune system, is characterised by yellow or brownish sands. In winter, rain, which is slightly acidic, dissolves small amounts of calcium carbonate as it percolates through the sand. As the dune dries out during summer, this is precipitated as a cement around grains of sand in the lower levels of the dunes, binding them together and eventually producing a hard limestone rock, known as Tamala limestone. At the same time, vegetation that had become established on the surface aided this process. Plant roots stabilised the surface, and encouraged a more acidic layer of soil and humus (containing decayed plant and animal matter) to develop over the remaining quartz sand. The acidic soil accelerated the leaching process, and a hard layer of calcrete formed over the softer limestone below. Cracks which formed in the calcrete layer were exploited by plant roots. When water seeped along these channels, the softer limestone beneath was slowly leached away and the channels gradually filled with quartz sand. This subsurface erosion continued until only the most resilient columns remained. The Pinnacles, then, are the eroded remnants of the formerly thick bed of limestone. As bushfires denuded the higher areas, south-westerly winds carried away the loose quartz sands and left these limestone pillars standing. Although the formation of the Pinnacles would have taken many thousands of years, they were probably only exposed in quite recent times. Aboriginal artefacts at least 6,000 years old have been found in the Pinnacles Desert despite no recent evidence of Aboriginal occupation. This tends to suggest that the Pinnacles were exposed about 6,000 years ago and then covered up by shifting sands, before being exposed again in the last few hundred years. This process can be seen in action today—with the predominantly southerly winds uncovering pinnacles in the northern part of the Pinnacles Desert but covering those in the south. Over time, the limestone spires will no doubt be covered again by other sand drifts and the cycle repeated, creating weird and wonderful shapes over and over again.

pinnaroo—an Aboriginal elder.

pinny—1. pinafore. 2. (see: pain in the pinny).

Pintubu-Anmatjera—an Aboriginal people of the Northern Territory.

Pintupi—an Aboriginal people of the Western Desert region.

Pintupi-Luritja—an Aboriginal language spoken by approximately 1000 people in Western Australia.

pip—(the...) a fit of bad temper, annoyance, irritation: e.g., There's no need to get the pip!

piping shrike—the state emblem of South Australia. Also known as the Australian magpie.

pipped at the post—narrowly beaten, defeated: e.g., He was just pipped at the post in the election by another candidate.

pippy—annoyed; irritated: e.g., What's he pippy about?

pish!—exclamation of contemptuous disbelief.

pisoniaPisonia grandis, a woodland tree endemic to sub-tropical islands of the Indo-Pacific region. It has punky wood which functions as water storage tissue, and does not have a clear ring structure. It grows tall enough to form a closed canopy. During storms, the largest specimens blow over, tearing a gap in the forest canopy; however, they don't die when they fall over—they sprout along the trunk at each branch. The initial fall smashes what few rainforest species manage to become established on a coral cay. Then an already established tree sprouts along the length of the fallen trunk, effectively filling in the gap with pisonia clones, locking out any other species. Pisonia trees grow to about 15m and are vital for the nesting of a wide range of boobies, frigate birds, terns and shearwaters. The pisonia trees growing on the islands of Queensland's Great Barrier Reef have seeds covered with a sticky substance, which are spread the black noddies which nest in the trees during the breeding season. The estimated area of P. grandis forests on Australian islands is about 200ha (160ha in islands of the Coral Sea and the Capricorn Group). Many island forests of pisonia have been cleared for human habitation and coconut plantations. For this reason, the Australian forests are now particularly important.

piss—1. urine. 2. beer: e.g., He's been on the piss all day! 3. to urinate. 4. an intensifier meaning very: e.g., That film was piss-awful!

piss around—fool around; waste time with foolish or ineffectual behaviour.

piss down—to rain hard.

piss in it or get off the pot—do something constructive instead of complaining; don't be so indecisive.

piss in (someone's) pocket—to behave in an obsequious manner towards (someone) in the hope of personal gain.

piss into the wind—attempt something futile.

piss off—1. depart; leave: e.g., We have to piss off. 2. (offensive) go away! get lost!

piss on—to drink excessively, especially beer: e.g., We pissed on till daylight on his birthday.

piss on (someone) from a great height—(I'd like to...) expression of one's utter contempt for (someone).

piss (oneself)—receive a shock or sudden fright.

piss (oneself) laughing—to laugh uncontrollably.

piss (someone) off—to dismiss, tell (someone) to leave, usually in a manner indicating one's contempt.

piss-ant—person small in stature (but often big in bravado, courage).

piss-fart—1. an insignificant or annoying person. 2. to mess around, fool about; waste time: e.g., I wish he'd stop piss-farting and get on with the job.


piss-pot—a drunkard, alcoholic or heavy drinker.


piss-up -party or occasion during which a great amount of beer is consumed.

piss-weak—1. unsatisfactory; disappointing; not up to expectations. 2. (of character) cowardly; irresolute.

pissed—drunk; intoxicated.

pisser—1. the pub. 2. (men's) urinal.

pissing down—raining heavily.

pissing in the wind—attempting to do something with little or no chance of success.

pissy/pissy-eyed—drunk; intoxicated.

pitch—(cricket) area between the wickets.

pitch into—1. attack forcibly with blows, words, etc. 2. assail (food, work, etc) vigorously.

pitch on—happen to select.

pitch up—(cricket) bowl (a ball) to bounce near the batsman.

pitch wickets—(cricket) fix the stumps in the ground and place the bails.

pitchi—(see: coolamon).

Pitjantjatjara—an Aboriginal people of northern South Australia, originally from the Petermann and Rawlinson ranges area northward to Lake Hopkins and southward to Birksgate Range. European settlement and the spread of Christianity very largely destroyed the ceremonial life of the centrally placed Arrernte people, but the traditions survived among the Pitjantjatjara, Pitubi, Walpiri, Amnatjira and Warramunga tribes. Ground mosaics are the most elaborate of their art works, but complementary designs and decorations are applied to the bodies and specially constructed head dresses of actors; to secret-sacred ritual objects that are stored near the ceremonial grounds; and often to shields, boomerangs and other weapons. The design elements are not, in themselves, considered dangerous. But in a ceremonial situation, when the correct secret-sacred chants are sung, they are believed to partake of mythological forces, whose essence they pass on to otherwise profane objects. Thus, the dancers and the objects they use are thought to become imbued with supernatural power. If not made unrecognisable in rituals, the decorations are usually destroyed immediately afterwards, for most are not to be displayed in secular situations. No one man can create a ground design. In the complexity of any Aboriginal social situation, each site that is still 'living' has at least two men who stand in a 'keeper-owner' relationship to it and two men called kutungulu ('inspectors' or 'policemen') who ensure that their keeper-owners maintain correct protocol. Similarly, unless given formal dispensation, men can create only those paintings over which they are recognised as having authority: there is no concept of total artistic freedom in the Western sense. Each major secret-sacred ground painting represents both an individual, identifiable geographical locality and a mythological incident that occurred there, although it is inevitable that related sites and incidents will also be recalled. As there are hundreds upon hundreds of different sites in a tribal territory, ranging from individual trees or rocks to mountains, the most learned old men may well know the details of hundreds of paintings—even, possibly, of more than a thousand. The designs must be relatively static in composition and have persisted over a great many generations to allow for such feats of memory.

Pitjantjatjara Council—an organisation of all Ngaanyatjara, Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people and their communities and outstations in Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, covering an area of around 350 000 square kilometres. Communities and homelands extend from Coober Pedy in South Australia to west of Warburton in Western Australia, and include Docker River, Mutitjulu, Imanpa and Finke in the Northern Territory. The Ngaanyatjara, Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people formed the Pitjantjatjara Council in 1976. The Council became the focal point for political and land-based discussions and negotiations with governments and the mining industry. It was the group through which decisions were made and negotiations conducted with the South Australian Government in relation to the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act.

Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act, 1981—gave Aboriginal people title to more than 103 000 square kilometres of arid land in the far north-west of South Australia. All Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjara people who are traditional owners of any part of these lands are members of Anangu Pitjantjatjara. Communities on the lands include: Amata, Fregon, Indulkana, Mimili, Pipalyatjara, and Patja (Ernabella).

pitman—a collier; miner.

Pitt Street farmer—businessman living in the city with farming interests, usually for the purpose of avoiding tax.

Pittosporum—a large genus, with about 20 Australian species occurring in all states. Pittosporum undulatum, or native daphne, is a tree to 12m in its natural habitat. It provides dense shade and spreads up to 7m across. It has coarse, grey bark and glossy green, elliptical leaves with distinctive wavy or undulating margins. Small, white, fragrant flowers occur in terminal clusters in spring and early summer and are followed by orange-tan berries 1cm in diameter in autumn, which persist for several months. It is a hardy and adaptable plant which appreciates most acidic soils and extra moisture, yet can also withstand extended dry periods once established. The species has proven to be very invasive in bushland, colonising moist areas such as gullies and areas of disturbed soil. It grows rapidly and quickly shades out most other plants. Its berries are attractive to birds and thus may be carried quite far from the parent plant. It has become an environmental weed in Cuba, Tasmania, Western Australia, Western Victoria and South Australia, as well as in bushland around Sydney. The Aborigines used Pittosporum phylliraeoides, or butterbush, as an oily preparation from the ground seed to massage bruises, sprains and muscles.

Pittsville—1. any squalid living conditions or extremely poor situation. 2. bottom of despair.

Pittwater—a sheltered waterway 5.5km-long and 600m to 1,000m wide, upon entering Broken Bay from the south. Other than a shallow inshore area close to Barren joey Beach at the entrance to Pittwater, the waters are generally deep. Between the 1790s and 1840s, Pittwater was a haven for escaped convicts and liquor smugglers (sly groggier). For ships travelling the NSW coastline, it was also a place of shelter from storms. Many were shipwrecked before a lighthouse was built on Barren joey headland in the late 19th century. Dense urban development now comprises all of the eastern and southern shore. Scotland Island is located close to the southern end of the waterway.

pituriDuboisia haloperidol, a perennial shrub to 3m, sometimes as a small tree, with brown to purplish bark on the young stems and corky older bark. Leaves are long, narrow and alternate to 15cm, with recurved point and straight margins. Flowers are open clusters of white (with purple striped tube) at the end of the branches. Produces black berry to 6mm, containing 1 to 2 seeds in a dark pulp. It is found in the more arid areas of the northern half of Australia: western NSW, Queensland, Central Australia to the Kimberly area of Western Australia. Pituri, mostly prepared from this species and some Nicotiana species, was the mostly widely known and reportedly used 'narcotic' amongst Aboriginal people when Europeans first arrived. Pituri was considered, above all other power plants, the most important in traditional Aboriginal society and culture. To obtain the drug the leaves are dried, powdered and then mixed with ash made from species such as Acacia, Cassia or Eucalyptus. This mixture was rolled up into balls or quids and then chewed. The mixing of the alkaline ash with the plant material would have rendered the alkaloids more available when chewed or ingested. The chief constituent of Duboisia haloperidol was found to be nicotine and nor-nicotine, with a content reportedly up to 25% of the dried weight of the plant material. Also known as pitchiri, pitcheri and many variants, emu plant, poison bush.

Pityrodia jamesii—a shrub that grows on rocky areas in pockets of sandy soil. Pink-white flowers appear in September to December. The shrub's sticky, fragrant leaves are the main food of Leichhardt's grasshopper.

pivot—(Australian Rules football) centre position.

pivot on—think about; consider.

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