Australian Dictionary

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Australia Decoded

Tree Kangaroo

Tree Kangaroo with Her Joey

tree everlastingOzothamnus ferrugineus, a fast-growing, hardy, narrow-leafed, open shrub to 4m high. It produces a dense, domed spray of white flowers in summer. Cassinia has aromatic foliage and is frequently used as a specimen plant in native gardens. It is also often used for dried flower arrangements. The seeds are wind dispersed and it is often a pioneer species after fire or other disturbance.

tree frog—any arboreal tailless amphibian, especially of the family Hylidae, climbing by means of adhesive discs on its digits.

tree violetHymenanthera dentata, a spreading shrub to 3m tall, tree violet occurs on the edges of rainforest or beside streams. Leaves are toothed, with thorns present along the branches.

tree-fern—large, terrestrial, long-lived, tree-like ferns. Tree-ferns are successful survivors from the distant past, with plant forms dating back to the Jurassic period. In the wild, tree-ferns occur in certain sub-tropical and tropical environments and in Southern Hemisphere temperate forests. They are commonly cultivated in warmer regions of the world, but various species grow well in cooler climates. Tree-ferns are characterised by erect stems, usually trunk-like, and with a thick mat of roots at the base. Fronds are generally tough and divided twice to many times.

tree-kangaroosDendrolagus spp. are marsupials of the genus Dendrolagus, adapted for arboreal locomotion. They inhabit the tropical rainforests of New Guinea, far northeastern Queensland, and some of the islands in the region. They are the only true arboreal macropods. During the late-Miocene the semi-arboreal rock-wallabies evolved into the now extinct tree-kangaroo genus Bohra. Global cooling during the Pleistocene caused continent-wide drying and rainforest retractions in Australia and New Guinea. The rainforest contractions isolated populations of Bohra, which resulted in the evolution of today's tree-kangaroos (Dendrolagus spp.), as they adapted to lifestyles in geographically small and diverse rainforest fragments, and became further specialized for a canopy-dwelling lifestyle. They are solitary and territorial, especially the males. Tree roos spend most of their time in trees, so their limbs are different from those of ground-based kangaroos. Their front and back limbs are more equal in length, and their forearms are longer and stronger. They have dextrous forepaws—they can grasp stems in their fingers—and they have very flexible wrists. Their back legs and feet are short and broad with rough-textured pads and long, curved claws, to improve grip. Tree-kangaroo tails are long, slender and flexible but not prehensile—their tails are mainly used for balance as they jump and move around in trees. Unlike other kangaroos, tree-kangaroos can walk, i.e., move both feet independently as they move on all fours. Although they prefer to walk, tree-kangaroos can hop, and do so on broader, roughly horizontal branches. They also hop down from trees (from a height of up to 9-10m) or from tree to tree, though they cannot make more than two hops in succession. Most tree-kangaroos are considered threatened due to hunting and habitat destruction.

tree-piping termitesCoptotermes acinaciformis, one of the few species of termites who are responsible for creating didgeridoos. They build tunnels up living trees and consume dead wood where they find it. Commonly found throughout Australia—particularly in urban areas or where eucalypt gum trees are highly prevalent. Coptotermes acinaciformis is a very secretive termite species; they build their nest out of sight, often within the base of eucalyptus or other susceptible trees, or completely under the ground; often within an enclosed patio or under concrete on ground flooring. C. acinaciformis is highly destructive to buildings and other timber structures. They are the most widely distributed and destructive timber pest in Australia, accounting for more than 70% of the serious damage to buildings. A single colony may consist of more than one million termites.

trepang—(see: sea cucumber).

tri-axle—truck and/or trailer where the trailer has three rear axles.

trial handicap—(horse-racing) race restricted to horses classified as in the trial class.

Tribunal—(Australian Rules football) body before which a footballer who has been reported for infringements of rules or violence in a match has to appear.

trick out—dress up in one's best and finest clothes.

trier—one who tries hard despite failure, hardship or disappointment.

trifle—a confection of sponge cake with custard, jelly, fruit, cream, etc.

trim (one's) sails—change (one's) tactics, policy, to suit changing occasions or circumstances.t

rim, taut and terrific—in vibrant good health and spirits.

Triplet Falls—one of the iconic visitor sites in the Great Otway National Park. Nestled amongst the ancient forests of mountain ash and myrtle beech, three distinct and impressive cascades flow through shady rainforests and glades of mossy tree ferns. This beautiful area is set in the ancient forest and provides views into the lower cascades and the majestic main falls.

trolley—cable car.

trolley barbie—a barbecue on wheels.

trollop—1. a disreputable girl or woman. 2. a prostitute.

Tropic of Capricorn—the extreme southern position of the sun in its apparent annual journey. As the earth tilts on its axis, the sun appears to move in an orbit inclined 23 and a half degrees to the plane of the Earth's equator. It reaches its southern position, the Summer Solstice, on about 21 December, which begin the official period of summer in the Southern Hemisphere.

tropical banksia—a species of tree in the genus Banksia. It occurs across northern Australia, southern New Guinea and the Aru Islands. Growing as a gnarled tree to 7m high, it has large green leaves up to 22cm long with dentate (toothed) margins. The cylindrical yellow inflorescences (flower spikes), up to 13cm high, appear over the cooler months, attracting various species of honeyeaters, sunbirds, the sugar glider and a variety of insects. Flowers fall off the ageing spikes, which swell and develop follicles containing up to two viable seeds each. Banksia dentata is one of the four original Banksia species collected by Sir Joseph Banks in 1770, and one of four species published in 1782 as part of Carolus Linnaeus the Younger's original description of Banksia. Within the genus, it is classified in the series Salicinae, a group of species from Australia's eastern states. Genetic studies show it is a basal member (early offshoot) within the group. Banksia dentata is found in tropical grassland known as savanna, associated with Pandanus and Melaleuca. It regenerates from bushfire by regrowing from its woody base, known as a lignotuber. Banksia dentata was collected from the vicinity of the Endeavour River somewhere between 17 June and 3 August 1770 by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Banksia dentata is monotypic, and no subspecies are recognised. Though not closely studied, reports suggest it does not vary significantly over its range. Its local name in the Nunggubuyu language of eastern Arnhem Land is rilirdili. Other names from the same region include enindurrkwa in the Enindhilyagwa language of Groote Eylandt, and gulpu in the Rirratjingu language of Yirrkala.

tropical cyclone—an intense low-pressure system that forms over warm ocean waters at low latitudes. Tropical cyclones are associated with strong winds, torrential rain and storm surges (in coastal areas). They can cause extensive damage as a result of the strong wind, flooding (caused by either heavy rainfall or ocean storm surges) and landslides in mountainous areas resulting from heavy rainfall and saturated soil. If they attain maximum mean winds above 117kph (63 knots) they are called severe tropical cyclones. In the north-western Pacific, severe tropical cyclones are known as typhoons and in the north-east Pacific and Atlantic/ Caribbean they are called hurricanes.

tropical monsoonal forest—a semi-deciduous mesophyll/notophyll vine forest. Monsoon regions are generally associated with the Iron and McIlwraith ranges of eastern Cape York, and much of Cape York exhibits both monsoonal savannahs and open forestlands. Monsoonal areas have a similar general biology to the Wet Tropics, but are famous for the relict faunas they share with New Guinea. The New Guinea fauna and flora is derived from Australian forms, and represents a massive radiation of Gondwanan forms.

tropical monsoonal savannah—landscapes of grass and scattered trees that occur throughout the world’s tropics, covering a little less than a third of the world's land surface. In Australia, they encompass around one quarter of the continent, stretching from the Indian Ocean in the west to the Pacific in the east. They border desert country to the south and rainforest on the east coast. They are fringed by floodplains and peppered with patches of monsoonal forest in the north. These landscapes of dense grass and scattered trees stretch across northern Australia from Broome to Townsville. Aboriginal land covers substantial parts of the region, and within these savannas are the last intact Aboriginal cultures (ie, in Arhnem Land). Some of the world's largest mineral ore bodies and mining operations also occur in the region. Metal resources include: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, silver, nickel, tin, gold, manganese, uranium and magnesite.Other mineral resources include: diamonds, mineral sands, phosphate rock, kaolin, limestone and silica. Energy resources include coal and petroleum.

tropical rainforest—in Australia, rainforests cover 0.3% of the continent (about 2 million hectares). Treetop canopies are so dense they they are virtually closed and little sunlight penetrates to the forest floor. The true tropical rainforest is only found in Far North Queensland, in isolated areas along the east coast. In a typical rainforest ecosystem there is a never-ending cycle of generation, growth, maturity and death. Change can be very rapid when mother nature steps in with a cyclone, strong wind, flood or land slip. Humans can cause catastrophic changes to any forest ecosystem by clearing the forest of trees and undergrowth. Although regeneration of a forest is fast, it may take a 100 years to fully recover from a major cyclone or flood.

tropical savannah—the landscapes of dense grass and scattered trees that stretch across northern Australia from Broome to Townsville. This sort of country covers a huge area—around 1.9 million square kilometres—or around one-quarter of mainland Australia's land area. These landscapes are very important for a number of reasons. The tropical savannas are still home to a richAboriginal culture. Aboriginal land covers substantial parts of the region, such as Arnhem Land in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Northern Australia is also home to a pastoral industry that manages the largest area of land of any group. Here are some of the largest cattle stations in Australia with a rich history, such as the legendary Victoria River Downs. Pastoralists in northern Australia contend with variable climate, often poor soils, and threats such as invading weeds and changed fire regimes. Tree clearing and vegetation management are contentious issues in the north. The tropical savannahs are also home to an extraordinary variety of plants and animals—and not just in the rainforest patches that dot the region, but also in the grassy woodlands. The largest money generator in the tropical savannah region, however, is mining—with some of the world's largest mineral orebodies and mining operations in the region. Metal resources include: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, silver, nickel, tin, gold, manganese, uranium and magnesite. Other mineral resources include: diamonds, mineral sands, phosphate rock, kaolin, limestone and silica. Energy resources include coal and petroleum.

Troposodon—proposed by Bartholomai (1967) for the fossil kangaroo that Owen (1877) described as Sthenurus minor, and for which De Vis (1895) independently raised the name Halmaturus vinceus. Bartholomai demonstrated that Troposodon was not closely related to Sthenurus, and intimated a closer alliance with Protomnodon and Lagostrophus. Since Bartholomai described T. minor from the Darling Downs, another four species have been recognized from the late Cenozoic of eastern Australia and the Lake Eyre Basin (Campbell 1973; Bartholomai 1978; Flannery and Archer 1983). Campbell (1973) thought that Troposodon probably arose in the vicinity of Hadronomas, close to the divergence of Protemnodon, Sthenurus and Macropus Show, 1790. Flannery and Archer (1983) included it in the Sthenurinae.

troppo—crazy; mad; insane.

trot out—produce or bring out: e.g., As long as you keep trotting out the beer, he'll stay and drink.

trots—1. diarrhoea. 2. harness horse-racing; trotting-horse race meeting.

trouble-and-strife—(rhyming slang) wife.

troubled waters—state of unrest or confusion; e.g., The entire union movement is in troubled waters at present.

trout—an ugly or disagreeable person.

trout cod—formerly widespread throughout the upper reaches of the Murray-Darling system and recorded as far downstream as Mannum in South Australia, this species is now restricted to one natural population in Victoria and a few relocated colonies in Victoria, the ACT and New South Wales. Adult trout cod prefer a habitat with large snag piles in fast-flowing water and a stony stream bed.

Trubanaman—(see: Kowanyama).

truckie—a truck driver.

True Believer—refers to those members of the Australian Labor Party who are complete followers of the traditional socialist working-man's party philosophy.

true blue Aussie—early working class associations of 'true blue' remain, but in a further development of meaning the term came to be applied to any loyal Australian; all 'true Aussies' or all that is 'truly Aussie' are 'true blue'. In other words, true blue has widened into a synonym for dinkum or dinky-di, or for its variants fair dinkum and (earlier) straight dinkum.

true dickens/dinks—true? true! really? really! is that so! fair dinkum.

Truganini—the last full-blood Tasmanian Aborigine. Truganini was a native of Bruny Island, where her father had been an important elder. She worked with her husband, Woorrady, to help the Protector of Aborigines, George Robinson, move Aboriginal people from the mainland to settle on Flinders Island. She travelled to Port Phillip with Robinson and his wife, but returned to Flinders Island to move with her people to Oyster Cove on the mainland. This settlement was not successful and most of the people died there. Truganini died of natural causes in 1876 at the probable age of sixty-four, and was buried in the grounds of the female convict gaol in Hobart. Her body was exhumed and her skeleton displayed as a museum exhibit in 1947. One hundred years after her death, Truganini’s remains were cremated and the ashes were strewn on the D’Entrecasteaux Channel, within the homeland of her people.

try another one!—expression of disbelief.

try another tack—try a different approach, method.

try it/one on (someone)—attempt to deceive, hoodwink, cheat or test the temper or patience of (someone): e.g., That con-man tried to try one on me.

tuan—(see: brush-tailed phascogale).

tuart—the tree Eucalyptus gomphocephala of Western Australia exhibits dense foliage, dull grey bark and showy white-to-cream flowers. It is restricted to coastal areas. Early accounts by explorers and settlers near Busselton describe a "beautiful open forest in which visibility was clear for a half mile in any direction". This medium-to-tall tree grows up to 40 metres high and has rough, fibrous, grey bark which flakes into small pieces. The almost stalkless buds cluster in groups of seven. Each bud has a prominent, broad bud cap which is eight to 10 mm long. Tuart buds are very distinctive; they have swollen bud caps and are shaped like small ice cream cones.

tube—television. 2. a can or bottle of beer. 3. underground electric railway.

tuck away/in/into—eat heartily, greedily: e.g., I can't wait to tuck into the yabbies!

tuck into the tucker—eat heartily, greedily.

tucker—food: e.g., The tucker at the barbie was beaut!

tucker-bag—any bag for carrying food.

tucker-box—a refrigerator, or any container for food.

tuckered out—tired; exhausted.

tuckerooCupaniopsis anacardioides, a tree species that is endemic to littoral rainforests, and widely planted as a either a street tree or an ornamental specimen. Similar planting within the United States (Florida) has resulted in an invasive situation that is threatening the survival of native species. Tuckeroo is an evergreen with a smooth. light grey trunk, and forms a dense canopy with dark green, compound leaves. The flowers are insignificant; the yellow seed capsules, 1/2" across, form in summer. Smooth, light gray bark. Tuckeroo tolerates drought, poor drainage, any soil, steady or cold winds and fog. It is also disease and pest resistant. A tough, clean street tree, like a carob but more open and delicate. Deep, non-invasive roots rarely cause sidewalk damage. Also known as carrotwood.

tuckshop—shop selling food and drinks, especially at a school; snackbar.

Tully—a rural town nestled between Mount Mackay and Mount Tyson, Tully has the distinction of being the wettest place in Australia. (Annual rainfall exceeds 4134mm.) The Tully River was dammed in 1935 to produce hydroelectricity, which it still provides to Cairns and Townsville. Tully, originally known as Banyan, was first settled in the 1870s as a sugar cane and cattle farming town. In 1927 the name was changed to Tully after William Tully, a surveyor. Located 180km south of Cairns, Queensland, on the Bruce Highway.

Tully River—located 2 hours south of Cairns, the road winds its way through spectacular World Heritage-listed rainforest. Whitewater rafting is a popular activity on the Tully River, with commercial rafting companies operating daily. If you want the ultimate in rafting, you want an unforgettable day on the Tully River. With over 45 extraordinary rapids, it’s the north’s guaranteed tropical white water/white knuckle adventure. The magnificent waterfalls that cascade down the gorge walls through Jurassic-era rainforest provide an unforgettable backdrop. Raging Thunder Adventures pioneered rafting in 1984 with the first commercial trip, consisting of three nervous passengers. Today, trips depart daily for the Tully River, as it is regarded as the best river rafting across Australia and New Zealand.

Tumblagooda Sandstone—a consolidated red sandstone of Silurian age, ranging in thickness from 1000m to 2500m. The formation abuts the Northampton Complex, commonly with a faulted contact, and is overlain by Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments. The sandstone appears to have both fracture and intergranular permeability. Bore yields presumably depend on intersection of either fractures or gravel layers within the formation. Bores drilled for Kalbarri town water supply obtain as much as 1000kl/day. Groundwater salinity is variable. East of the Northampton Complex, the groundwater in the Tumblagooda Sandstone is generally brackish. At Kalbarri, the groundwater salinity is low, less than 0.5 ppt, and is used principally for town water supply.

tumbledown gumEucalyptus dealbata, a very good honey and pollen producing tree of the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales and southern Queensland. The bees collect large to huge volumes of pollen and produce a good surplus of honey. Tumbledown gum usually flowers in October and November, stimulating the hives to breed rapidly. It often flowers while jellybush is also in flower. Both these floral sources are known to stimulate bees, and at such times huge swarms may occur. Also known as hill gum, sand gum, ridge gum.

Tunnel Creek National Park—Western Australia's oldest cave system is famous as a hideout used late last century by anAboriginal leader known as Jandamarra. The creek flows through a water-worn tunnel beneath the limestone of the Napier Range, part of the 375 to 350 million-year-old Devonian Reef system. The present system of active caves may have reused the same channels they created over the last 20 million years or so. Erosion has since exhumed the reef, preserving the old river course. The presence of underground pools along the floor of the cave is due to the water table being just below the present erosion surface. Within the 3m by 15m, 750m-long tunnel are sites of Aboriginal rock art as well as stalactites, bats, and several permanent pools housing the occasional freshwater crocodile. The best time to visit the park is from May to October, avoiding the monsoon season and possible flash flooding within the cave. Notable flora includes the boab and paperbark trees. The fauna consists of sand monitors and water goannas, wallabies, bats, herons and owls. Tunnel Creek National Park covers just 91ha and is located in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 115km from Fitzroy Crossing, 180km from Derby and 30km south-east of Windjana Gorge.

tuppence—1. prior to decimal currency, the sum of two pence. 2. a very small amount; a bit; anything at all: e.g., She doesn't care tuppence about him.


turf out—1. throw out; discard. 2. fire; sack; dismiss.

turkey bushCalytrix exstipulata, in the Kakadu region, the appearance of flowers on the turkey bush, around May, signals the end of the season of Banggereng and the beginning of Yegge. The flowering is spectacular, masking the insignificant leaves and giving the plants an overall pink appearance until about August (although, in other parts of northern Australia, it flowers earlier and later in the year). It grows in dense groups, attaining heights of 2m—4m, and providing a vivid splash of colour in the woodlands and margins of grasslands in which it occurs. It is found from the Gulf Country of Queensland, through the tropical Northern Territory to the Kimberley in Western Australia. Although fairly uniform in its characteristics throughout most of its range, the Kimberley plants are more variable in their floral structure and leaf arrangement, which might indicate that these are different (and new) species of Calytrix. It is thought that the turkey bush is so named because the plains turkey would seek refuge amongst its foliage when pursued by hunters. The turkey bush is also a favoured shade plant of wallabies. When the flower is developing (before the long purplish petals spread open), it is protected by a structure called the 'calyx'. The calyx has long, stiff hairs that are almost as long as the petals. After the petals fall, the pink-red calyx remains. It was for this special calyx that the genus, Calytrix, was named by the French botanist, Jacques Labillardière, referring to the hairs (thrix in Greek) on the calyx. Calytrix is found only in Australia, with most of its 70 or so species occurring in Western Australia. It belongs to the family Myrtaceae, which includes the eucalypts, bottlebrushes and paperbarks. Like other members of that family, the leaves of Calytrix exstipulata contain oil with therapeutic properties. Indigenous people use the plant for pain relief. Commercial producers of the oil say that it enhances creativity.

turn an honest quid—earn one's living honestly, ethically.

turn dingo/dog—become an informant; betray; become a coward; turn treacherous.

turn it up!—a plea for moderation: be reasonable!; shut up!; stop it!

turn (one's) hand to—direct (one's) energies and efforts to.

turn over a dollar—make; earn money.

turn turtle—1. to capsize, turn over: e.g., Many boats turned turtle in that wild storm. 2. to change one's opinion, point of view, original stand.

turn up (one's) toes—to die.

turn up trumps—work out, turn out successfully.

turn-up for the books—1. an unexpected surprise or reversal of fortune or luck. 2. (horse-racing) lucky result for a bookmaker.

turning of the fagus—at the end of autumn, a tree in the middle of the Tasmanian bush does something unusual—it changes colour to red, orange and gold. Local people call it the "turning of the fagus" and it's a spectacular reminder of Australia's Gondwanan heritage. The tree is the >deciduous beech, Nothofagus gunnii, the only deciduous native tree in Tasmania. Nothofagus is one of the oldest genera of flowering plants in the world, with a fossil record stretching back 80 million years. It is regarded by scientists as one of the keys to understanding how vegetation evolved and migrated throughout the Southern Hemisphere. Two of the best places to see the 'turning of the fagus' are Cradle Mountain/Lake St Clair National Park and Mount Field National Park. But you'll need your bushwalking boots. Traditionally, the ANZAC Day weekend (April 25th) is when bushwalkers head out to catch the trees in their autumn blaze.

turkey bushCalytrix exstipulata, common throughout the lowlands of Arnhem Land. It bears masses of pink-purple flowers between May and August.

turpentine treeSyncarpia glomulifera, a rainforest tree found in coastal districts of NSW and Queensland as far north as Atherton. Yields a strong and durable timber with high resistance to fungal decay, termites, and marine borers. The tree has a stringy, fibrous bark and an orange-red resin. Grows to 40m—45m tall. Considered more resistant to marine organisms than any other Australian hardwood, it has been used extensively for building frames, bearers and flooring, wharf and bridge decking, railway sleepers and telegraph poles, and for building the docks of London.

turps—1. mineral turpentine. 2. strong alcohol; booze.

turquoise parrotNeophema pulchella, a small, ground-feeding parrot inhabiting open eucalypt woodland. The male's forehead, face and cheeks are electric blue, underparts are yellow with a green tinge on the flanks and sides of the breast. Upper parts are bright green with a chestnut-coloured red patch on the shoulders. A bend of the wing reveals the bright turquoise-blue for which the bird is named, and the flight feathers are edged in the same colour. The tail is green, and the broad outer tail feathers are tipped with yellow. Females resemble males but the forehead and face are a paler blue, lores are pale yellow, the front of the neck and breast are green and she lacks the chestnut-coloured patch on the shoulders. The turquoise parrot displays an erratic distribution that is dependant upon rain patterns and consequent availability of the seed for which they forage. They are encountered from south-eastern Queensland to northern Victoria.

Turrbul—the early indigenous inhabitants of the Pine Rivers district were of the Turrbul language group. The Turrbul, sometimes referred to the Brisbane Tribe extended from about Logan River in the south, Moggill in the west and Pine River in the north. The coastal strip belonged to the Ninge-Ninge clan from the Kabi group and to the west in the foothills of the D'Aguilar Range were the Garumungar. Numerous clans or groups centred their lives around various locations within Turrbul country, as evidenced by numerous bora rings that were observed in the early days of white settlement. The Turrbul seemed to have been primarily river people, whose favourite camps and ceremonial grounds were adjacent to their main food source.

turtle frogMyobatrachus gouldii of the south-west, cannot leap and can barely swim. It lives underground, in the sands beneath the heaths and woodlands, feeding entirely on termites.

tush—1. bum, backside. 2. woman viewed as a sex object.

tussock grasslands—areas of heavy, cracking clay soil supporting typical grasses with a distinct root mass and tuft of leaves. Native grasslands have few or no trees. Before European settlement native tussock grasslands occurred on many of the fertile plains. A superficial resemblance to European pasture made this land very attractive to early settlers. The lowland tussock grasslands have been heavily cleared, and today only small patches remain in places like country cemeteries and road reserves. Some larger areas of lowland native pastures are still found on grazing properties, where they are valued for the high-quality wool produced by sheep grazing on them. Lowland grasslands are of two types: lowland silver tussock grassland or kangaroo grass tussock grassland, both of which are endangered. Prefering better nutrient soils than spinifex, they occupy only 9% of the arid zone. Tussock grasslands are a noted habitat for rats, and predators such as the letter-winged kite and Collet's black snake.

tute—tutorial teaching session.

twaddle—nonsense; rubbish; idle talk.

twat—silly, foolish woman.

twee—affectedly dainty or quaint.

Tweed Heads—a major retirement centre on the border between New South Wales and Queensland. The Tweed Shire occupies an entire river valley, fronting 34km of coastline featuring wide, sandy beaches punctuated by low headlands. The Tweed River meanders through the valley before it winds its way up behind Fingal Head and discharges into the Pacific Ocean at Tweed Heads. Timber getters worked the riverbanks for cedar from about 1844, floating logs along the river to the estuary until 1902. By the 1880s people had started moving into holiday cottages, leading naturally toward the retirement village it has become. North from Tweed Heads and just across the NSW/QLD border is Coolangatta, its twin town on the Gold Coast.

Tweed Valley—the caldera of the ancient Mount Warning shield volcano. A volcanic caldera is the bowl-shaped depression left where the central stack has collapsed back upon itself after the hot magma has been ejected. Over the past 20 million years, the vast majority of the ejected volcanic material has been eroded away. The rim of the caldera has been protected by a cap of very hard rock, and forms a semi-circle of vertical cliffs around the western side of Mount Warning, which dominates the valley landscape, especially around the township of Murwillumbah. Sugar cane, cattle and dairy farming make use of the caldera floor, which is one of the biggest erosion calderas in the world. The valley is over 1000m deep and has a diameter of over 40km.

Tweed Volcano Group—the huge size of the Tweed Valley, the caldera of the Mount Warning shield volcano, gives us an inkling of what a monster it was. Today the caldera valley is over 1000m deep and has a diameter of over 40km, making it larger even than the famous Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania. The biggest erosion caldera in the Southern Hemisphere, and one of the largest calderas in the world, it is one of the world's great natural wonders, and also one of the few places where the erosion process can be seen to the underlying pre-volcanic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, providing enthusiasts with a wonderful opportunity to test their knowledge of geological processes. The rim of the caldera has been protected by a cap of very hard basaltic rock, forming a virtual semi-circle of vertical cliffs around the western side of Mount Warning, which now stands at just over 1100m tall, and is increasingly known by it's Aboriginal name—"Wollumbin". Being so high and so far east on the Australian coast, it is the first peak on the mainland in Australia to be touched by the rising sun at the autumn and spring equinii. Sugar cane, cattle and dairy farming make use of much of the rich, post-glacial alluvial deposits on the caldera floor, but the heights are protected by their inaccessibility and World Heritage listing of five national parks.

Tweed-Coolangatta—the premiere tourist destination on the border of New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. This sub-tropical region offers nature- based, rural experiences with five World Heritage-listed national parks, abundant bird life and sub-tropical vegetation, state forests, kilometres of unspoilt, clean beaches, rivers and lakes abundant in bird and marine life, wetlands and crystal clear streams, marine reserves and offshore natural resources combined with a sub tropical-climate with year-round mild temperatures, all in close proximity to the attractions and theme parks of the Gold Coast.

tweeds—trousers; pants.

twelfth man—(cricket) replacement player.

Twelve Apostles—(the...) limestone sculptures situated on the Great Ocean Road, Victoria. The road itself is 400km long and follows the beautiful Victorian coastline through Port Campbell National Park and beyond to Warrnambool.

twenty to the dozen—fast; quickly; in hate.

twig—perceive; understand; notice; finally, suddenly grasp the meaning of: e.g., He hasn't twigged to the surprise party we have planned for him.

twinkle—to urinate, or the act of urinating, especially of women.

twinkle-palace—(especially of women) the toilet.

Twisties—cheese-flavored corn crisps.

twit—silly, foolish, stupid person: e.g., Monty Python loved to send up 'the upper-class twit'.

two bites at the cherry—two attempts at something.

two flags—(Australian Rules football) a goal.

two, four, six, eight, bog in, don't wait—jocular, mock grace said just before eating.

two men and a dog—very few people: e.g., The meeting was a failure—only two men and a dog turned up.

Two Peoples Bay—midshipman Ransonnet would have appreciated the contrast with the rugged open sea around the headland when he brought his exploration party into the sheltered waters of Two Peoples Bay in 1803. They had left Captain Baudin's ship the Géographe at Frenchman's Bay, and sailed east to explore the then uncharted area. To their surprise, they found Captain Pendleton in the United States brig, Union, already there, having come from New York in search of seals. The French and American meeting on the far side of the world was commemorated in the name Baie de Deux Peuples. In later years, others came to exploit the marine life on the south coast of Western Australia. In the 1840s, up to 12 ships anchored in Two Peoples Bay during the whaling season, to hunt humpback and southern right whales in the bay and surrounding waters. Whale blubber was rendered on the ships and onshore. Today, winter storms sometimes expose whale bones along the beach—bleached reminders of a grisly, dangerous trade. Two Peoples Bay, which faces due east, lies between the granite massifs of Mount Gardner and Mount Manypeaks, near Albany. The high, rocky hills around Mount Gardner form a headland on the south side of the bay, protecting it from the heavy Southern Ocean swells.

Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve boasts unspoilt coastal scenery and is a vital area for threatened animal species. Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve was formally gazetted in 1967 and covered the entire headland, the adjacent islands and the short isthmus connecting to a wetland system of lakes, streams and swamps—remnants of an estuary in the Pleistocene era. All of the known noisy scrub-bird habitat was included, giving the reserve a diverse array of vegetation types suitable for many other species. The bay is also a haven for a number of rare and uncommon mammals. The diggings of the quenda are common—at times, areas particularly favoured by these omnivorous bandicoots resemble newly dug-over vegetable gardens. Quendas are often seen during the day crossing roads and tracks within the reserve, and are taken by birds of prey, such as the little eagle. Western ringtail possums are occasionally seen in the low forest trees on Mount Gardner, where their dreys (basketball-sized nests made of sticks) are common.

Two Peoples Bay wetland group—consists of a number of small- to medium-sized, permanent freshwater lakes and a number of small, seasonal swamps, all within 15km east of Two Peoples Bay. The lakes are located within or on the edge of remnant bushland and nature reserve. The wetland includes areas of national significance. It is characterised by freshwater conditions, extensive sedgeland habitat, moderate bird numbers and some breeding. Moates Lake supports Western Australia's rarest freshwater fish, the spotted mountain trout.

two-bob lair—flashy but cheap person; one who is extravagant in a cheap, gaudy, exhibitionistic manner.

two-bob millionaire—someone who has temporarily come into, or acquired, some money and who is considered not likely to have it for long.

two-penny/tuppenny—cheap; worthless.

two-pot screamer—person who gets drunk very easily on very little alcohol.

two-up—a gambling game whereby two coins are thrown in the air and bets laid as to whether they will land two heads or two tails.


Twofold Bay—the site of one of Australia's largest whaling industries for over a century. Commercial exploitation commenced in 1828 when Captain Thomas Raine established a shore based station at Snug Cove on the shores of the bay. One of the most fascinating aspects of the Twofold Bay whaling story, however, was the role played by pods of killer whales. From at least 1843 until 1930, these amazing creatures returned annually and played their unique part in the whale chases of the area. Indeed, an instrumental role in the long survival of the Davidson shore-based whaling station. After herding migrating whales into the bay, these creatures then combined with the whalers to attack the prey, snapping at their body and throwing themselves over the whale's blowhole until they finally succumbed to what was almost always an inevitable result. They were even known to alert the whalers to their quarry's presence by flop tailing and splashing in the bay in front of the station. They were rewarded for their assistance with the lips and tongue after the whalers had killed the prey. Today, the migrating whales pass close to shore, often venturing right into Twofold Bay. It has recently been observed that whales also stop here to feed and that cow and calf pairs will pause to rest in the sheltered waters of the bay. Located on the far south coast of New South Wales, approximately 230 nautical miles south of Sydney, near the town of Eden.

typhoon—in the north-western Pacific Ocean, a tropical cyclone with maximum winds above 117kph (63 knots).

tyre—Anglo-Australian spelling of tire.

tyre-iron—tire iron, crowbar.

Tyrendarra flow—the youngest flow from Mount Eccles. The Tyrendarra flow extends for over 50km to the west and south. On this flow are many very well-preserved original features, e.g., stony rises, lava caves and lava channels.

Tyrendarra Indigenous Protected Area—the second IPA to be declared in Victoria, covering 248ha in the Victorian Volcanic Plains bioregion. Tyrendarra and the surrounding environment have been a traditional gathering and camping area for the Gunditjmara for thousands of years. The Tyrendarra property, owned and managed by Winda Mara Aboriginal Corporation on behalf of the Gunditjamara people, was officially declared an Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) 0n 12 December 2003. The property is located on Darlot’s Creek, which flows from Lake Condah in the Western District of Victoria.

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