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Ulysses butterfly

Ulysses Butterfly (Papilio ulysses)

Ubirr—one of Kakadu’s two most celebrated rock art galleries, which can be viewed by following an easy one kilometre, circular walking track. The track winds around to a lookout. Along the way there are two galleries—one is located underneath a rock overhang and the other depicts the Namarrkan Sisters. The last section of the walk around the Ubirr gallery depicts the Rainbow Serpent on a cliff wall above an occupation site. Scientific investigation of occupation deposits in this region has yielded the oldest evidence for man's presence in northern Australia, with dates in the order of 23,000 years before present. This region is situated on the borderline of 3 different habitats and is rich in wildlife. Located in the north-east section of Kakadu National Park.

Ugarapul—an Aboriginal people who are part of the Jaggera language group. They lived to the west of Logan, around Fassifern and Ipswich, Queensland but the position of their eastern boundary is not clear and may have extended into Logan City. Tom Petrie frequently used the term "Logan tribe" in his reminiscences and, when speaking about the groups who were invited to the bunya festival, he explained that the Logan tribe was Ugarapul.

Ulladulla—a coastal town in New South Wales, in the City of Shoalhaven local government area. It is on the Princes Highway, about half way between the larger towns of Batemans Bay to the south and Nowra to the north and about 180km south of Sydney. The Ulladulla area is a 7km stretch of continuous urban residential development from the southern edge of Ulladulla, through the town of Mollymook, to Narrawallee in the north, terminating at the Narrawallee estuary. The name Ulladulla is an Aboriginal word meaning "safe harbour". The underdeveloped beaches along this stretch are mainly populated by Sydneysiders and Canberrans during holiday period. Along with the rest of the NSW South Coast, Ulladulla is located within a temperate climate zone and experiences warm summers and cool winters. The climate is influenced by the warm waters of the adjacent Tasman Sea and is characteristically mild without extreme high or low temperatures. The coolest month is July with a mean minimum temperature of 8.8°C. Mean temperatures are based upon data from 1991 to 2010. Ulladulla has a mean annual rainfall of 1009.6mm. The wettest month is February with 112.6mm, and the driest is August with 23.6mm.

Uluru (Ayer's Rock)—the world's largest monolith, 862.5m above sea level, rising 348m above the surrounding countryside with a circumference of 9.4km and an area of 3.33sq km. It experiences an average of 200-250mm of rainfall per year and a typical desert temperature range, which can fall to -8°C winter night and rise to 47°C during the a summer day. There is some scientific disagreement about the origins of Uluru. The most widely held theory is that both Uluru and Kata Tjuta are remnants of a vast sedimentary bed which was laid down some 600 million years ago. Eventually, the bed was spectacularly tilted, so that Uluru now protrudes at an angle of up to 85°. No-one is sure when the first Aborigines moved into the area but the best evidence suggests that it was at least 10,000 years ago. The arrival of Europeans in the area was part of the exploration of the Centre during the 1870s. Ernest Giles travelled through the area in 1872 and returned in 1873 but was beaten to Uluru by William Gosse, who sighted the monolith on 19 July and named it after the Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers. Pastoralists were defeated by the lack of water and then the only whites to pass through the area were trappers, quixotic miners such as Harold Lasseter, and the occasional missionary. The area was declared the Petermann Aboriginal Reserve in the early 1900s and this existed until the 1940s whenthe first graded road was built in 1948, the possibility of gold in the area, and the tourist potential of Uluru all showed how fragile the original reserve had been. Ayers Rock was created a national park in 1950. In 1958 the rock was combined with the Olgas to form the Ayers Rock National Park, later renamed to Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Uluru holds deep spiritual significance to the Anangu people, and many stories are told as you wander around the base, although they do request that you respect their culture and do not climb the rock. Some areas of the rock are sacred and are clearly marked, so the Anangu people request that you not take pictures nor enter these areas. The rock is actually grey but is covered with a distinctive red iron oxide coating. If you don't fancy walking around it, you should observe it during sunrise or sunset, when the it changes from greys to browns to reds to oranges to yellows. Located in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, 1395km south of Darwin and 465km south-west of Alice Springs.

Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park—an Aboriginal-owned park in the Northern Territory, covering more than 132,000ha in the arid centre of Australia. The park is home to Uluru, the world's largest monolith and one of the country's major tourist attractions. Mount Olga, part of a group of monoliths called The Olgas, is also located here. The park was declared in 1977, and freehold title was granted to the Uluru-Kata Tjuta Land Trust in 1985.The area was immediately leased back to the Commonwealth for continued management as a national park. The first Board of Management was established in April 1986 with a majority of its members being representatives of the Anangu, recognised as the traditional owners of the land enclosed by the park. Tjurkurpa, the traditional Anangu law, determines the park’s management. The concept of "keeping Tjurpa strong" by ensuring the proper management of significant or sacred sites is a very important part of "looking after country", conserving natural features of the land enclosed by the park). The park's listing as a World Heritage Cultural Landscape in 1994 resulted in an international recognition of Tjurpa as the major philosophy linking Anangu to their environment, and Tjurpa is their primary tool for caring for the country. Representatives of both Australian and overseas protected-area agencies, as well as indigenous people make regular visits from Australia and other parts of the world, seeking to learn about joint management.

Ulysses butterflyPapilio ulysses, the most spectacular butterfly of the Daintree. The wings of the adults have iridescent blue upper surfaces, with black borders. When perched, their brilliant colouring is hidden by brown underwings, camouflage for the resting butterfly. In flight, the brilliant blue appears to be flashing and can be seen from several hundred metres away. They often fly above or on the edge of the canopy, frequently along rivers and the side of the road, and are commonly attracted to gardens in the region. They feed on nectar, especially from the flowers of lantana. Its caterpillar feeds on the Evodiella tree, seen by the roadsides in the Daintree and available at nurseries in suitable areas. The males are especially attracted to blue objects, even from a distance of 30 metres. Collectors often exploit this by using a piece of blue paper or cloth to attract the butterflies. The live butterflies in the rainforest along the tropical north-east coast of Australia are a popular tourist attraction.

Umagico—an Aboriginal community established in 1963 for people relocated from the Lockhart River Mission. In the early 1970s, people from Moa Island in the Torres Strait were also resettled in Umagico, which now has an estimated population of 278 (as of June 2001), with about 97 per cent of the total population being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin. Umagico is known locally as ‘Alau’.

umbrella cockatooCacatua alba, an all-white bird with pale yellow under the wings and tail. They have a broad, pure white crest which is normally flat against the head and unfolds when raised, thus the source of their common name, 'umbrella'. Beaks, legs and feet are a blackish grey, which often look lighter due to a covering of cockatoo powder. They are one of the larger cockatoo species, averaging about 45cm. Males have black eyes; females, red or dark brown. Umbrellas are long-lived, with a life expectancy of over 70 years. They live in small groups or flocks. They inhabit forests and around farmland. Their diet consists mainly of berries, fruits and nuts found in the tops of large trees. Umbrellas lay small clutches, usually one or two eggs. Incubation is about 29 days. Chicks leave the nest in about 11 weeks. Both the male and female take turns in sitting on the eggs. Also known as white or white-crested cockatoos.

umbrella treeSchefflera actinophylla (after J.C.Scheffler, 19th century botanist). Schleffera is a large genus but only two species are found in Australia. The best known of the two is S. actinophylla (formerly Brassaia actinophylla), which is a plant of tropical rainforests and, in addition to occuring in Australia, can also be found in Papua New Guinea and other islands to Australia's north. S.actinophylla is a tree to 10 metres in its natural habitat. It usually develops a multi-trunked habit with foliage restricted to the top few metres. The common name is derived from the way the large leaflets radiate from a central stem. The deep red flowers occur in long racemes from the top of the foliage, and it is not unusual for 20 or more racemes to develop from each branch, radiating from the centre like the spokes of a wheel. The flowers, which develop in summer through to autumn, are attractive to honey-eating birds and the fleshy fruits are attractive to fruit-eating birds. In some areas it can become weedy, as the seeds are spread in bird droppings and germinate readily. The umbrella tree has been cultivated for many years both in Australia and overseas and is hardy in outdoor areas in tropical and sub tropical areas, or as an indoor potted plant. However, the species is causing problems in natural areas in some parts of sub-tropical Queensland and in Florida in the USA.

Umoona—an Aboriginal community in Coober Pedy. The Umoona Community Council was incorporated on the 11th of July 1975. The community takes its name from the Umoona tree that grows in the area. Umoona is Aboriginal for "long life".

Umoona (Breakaways Reserve)—an Aboriginal community located on Antakirinja land in the far north of South Australia, 25km from Coober Pedy. Aboriginal people have lived in this area for thousands of years and it has always been regarded as a very important place. Before white settlement the name of the Breakaways area was Umoona—for the umoona tree, meaning 'long life'. When white men came to this area in search of opals, Aboriginal people named the area Kupaku Piti, meaning 'white man's hole. Kupaku is a Muntunjarra word for 'white man' and piti is an Antakirinja word for 'hole'. Aboriginal culture does not allow the full story of the Breakaways to be told, as it is a teaching place for all young watis (men). Two Dogs or The Castle is known to Aboriginal people as 'two dogs sitting down', a yellow one and a white one. Another important area is the peaked hill to the south-west of Two Dogs: this is the man who owns the dogs. Beyond Two Dogs is The Emu (kalayu) looking after all the little chicks. It is a very important place—The Emu used to look after this whole area. From Lookout Two, bearded dragon lizards—the token of the Antakarinja people can be seen. Umoona is also the main source of various ochre colours, including the highly-valued red ochre (tudu) used in ceremonial body decoration. The Antakirinja Land Council, instituted in 1975—is currently in the process of placing Aboriginal Heritage Protection and Native Title claims on these areas within and outside of the Breakaways Reserve (Umoona).

Umoona Aboriginal Community Council—incorporated on the 11th of July 1975, the goals of the council are to establish, promote, operate and co-ordinate services and facilities for the advancement and well being of the Umoona community. To apply for, receive and administer grants or loans from any other source. To aquire within its own rights any land and property and to build, establish develop, maintain or renovate any such building, land and property. To let or sell such land or assets acquired within its own right only with the consent of a general meeting. To administer and operate services, projects enterprises for the council. To employ any person or persons on such terms and conditions as may be agreed to carry out the purpose of the council. To encourage an /or promote social, educational, recreational, cultural and sporting activities.

Umoona Opal Mine & Museum—the biggest range of Coober Pedy opal in rough and cut stones, opal curios such as opalised shells and opal pipes, as well as boulder, yowah and black opal. Friendly multilingual staff with working knowledge of opal mining. Authentic Aboriginal artifacts.

Umoona tree—(see: red mulga tree).


umpty-doo—1. intoxicated. 2. topsy-turvy.

unable to scratch (oneself)—1. dead drunk; totally intoxicated. 2. very busy.


unalienated Crown land—land that has not been reserved for any specific purpose or use.

unAustralian—there's been some hoo-ha recently about the expression. Some suggest it's a recent political invention, and others that it's unAustralian to call something unAustralian. But the word unAustralian appears in both the Macquarie and Australian Oxford dictionaries meaning: "not in accordance with the characteristics…said to be typical of the Australian community". The sociologists say that today unAustralian means "incivility and foreign influence". Hence, the big banks are sometimes called unAustralian. Most people don't know that the word unAustralian first appeared a hundred years ago. In the first half of the twentieth century it referred to communists, fifth-columnists, or radicals. But it's also a word used in fun. A citation from 1965 refers to a gadget as "very unAustralian". And there's a folk band who released a CD called UnAustralian Songs. So, while Americans may take being un-American very seriously, Aussies seem to think that unAustralian means not being able to barbecue a steak properly.

Uncle Toby's—one of Australia's most competitive and successful companies for over 100 years marketing products from old-fashioned oatmeal to bread—the General Foods of Australia.

UNCLOS—United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which allows nations to claim six zones including territorial seas (which extend 12 nautical miles from the coastal baseline), and a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Under the United Nations Law of the Sea, Australia could potentially gain four million square kilometres of seabed and subsoil and the right to manage resources including minerals, petroleum and sea floor organisms. However, to support a claim for such additional jurisdiction, Australia must provide extensive geoscientific data and analysis to prove that its continental landmass extends beyond the 200 nautical mile zone.

uncome-at-able—not attainable or accessible.

unconfined aquifer—an aquifer containing water with no upper, non-porous material to either limit its volume or to exert pressure.

uncrowned king—an unofficial but recognised leader in a particular field.

under (one's) own steam—without help; unaided.

under the lap—underhandedly; illicitly; illegally.


undercooked—(of meat) rare.


underground ball/pass—(cricket) grubber; not quite a daisy cutter.

underground mutton—rabbit.

undermentioned—mentioned at a later point in a book etc.

undermining—a subterranean variation of claim jumping in the goldfields of Victoria, involved digging into the adjoining claim. Some diggers took to sleeping in their workings to guard against unwanted fossickers.

undersell (oneself)—to lack faith, confidence in (one's) abilities.

understorey—habitat provided by plants growing between trees under the canopy of a forest, woodland, etc.

undone—brought to ruin, failure, destruction.

unearned increment—an increase in the value of property not due to the owner's labour or outlay.

UNESCO Biosphere Reserve—an international designation made by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on the basis of nominations submitted by countries participating in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB). Australian Reserves include: Bookmark Biosphere Reserve and Unnamed Conservation Reserve in South Australia; Croajinalong National Park, Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, Wilsons Promontory Marine Park & Marine Reserve, Mornington Peninsula and Western Port in Victoria; Fitzgerald River National Park and Prince Regent Nature Reserve in Western Australia; Kosciuszko National Park and Yathong National Park in New South Wales; Macquarie Island World Heritage Area in Tasmania; and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory.

unflappable—calm; dispassionate; imperturbable.

Ungarinyin—variant spelling of Ngarinjin.

unhinged—mentally unbalanced.


union down—(of a flag) hoisted with the union (the Union Jack) below as a signal of distress.

union-bashing—active opposition to trade unions and their rights.

unit—1. a privately owned (as opposed to rented) apartment. 2. any thing, piece of equipment or vehicle with a specific function. 3. a person: e.g., He's a poor unit since his wife left him.

United Kingdom overseas territory—(formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). Overseas territories should be distinguished from crown dependencies (the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, which have a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom), and protectorates (which were not formally under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom). They should also not be confused with Commonwealth realms, which are independent states sharing the same sovereign as the United Kingdom. At one time, most crown colonies were directly administered by officials appointed by the British government. Today, however most overseas territories are self-governing colonies, only relying on Britain for defence, foreign affairs and some trade issues. Overseas territories have never been considered integral parts of the United Kingdom, and have never had representation in the British Parliament, on the grounds that they are separate jurisdictions. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state in the overseas territories in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, not in right of each territory. This compares with independent realms of the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Canada or Australia, where the Queen has a separate and distinct role in each realm as "Queen of Canada" or "Queen of Australia". The Queen apppoints a governor who acts on her behalf, and is in charge of the territory's internal security matters, as well as acting as a delegate between the territory and the British government. He possesses the power to dissolve the legislature and must give all laws his personal assent. Depending on the stage of the colony's evolution these may be only exercised in a symbolic capacity. government policy on overseas territories is set out in the 1999 White Paper Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea—(UNCLOS) opened for signature in December 1982, and entered into force on 16 November 1994. The Convention deals with a number of matters such as international rights of navigation or deep-sea mining. For pollution prevention purposes, the most significant aspect of the 1994 Act was the declaration of a 200 nautical miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

United Nations Law of the Sea—allows nations to claim six zones including territorial seas (which extend 12 nautical miles from the coastal baseline), and a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Under United Nations Law of the Sea, Australia could potentially gain four million square kilometres of seabed and subsoil and the right to manage resources including minerals, petroleum and sea floor organisms. However, to support a claim for such additional jurisdiction, Australia must provide extensive geoscientific data and analysis to prove that its continental landmass extends beyond the 200 nautical mile zone.

Uniting Church of Australia—inaugurated 22 June 1977 from the Methodist Church of Australasia, (part of) the Presbyterian Church of Australia and (part of) the Congregational Union of Australia.

units—apartment building with each unit privately owned.

University of Adelaide—(or Adelaide University) is located in Adelaide, South Australia. It was founded in 1874, making it the third oldest university in Australia. It is a member of the "Group of Eight", an association of research-intensive Australian universities. The main campus of the is at North Terrace in the central business district of Adelaide, but it has four other campuses: Roseworthy, Waite and Thebarton, and more recently, the National Wine Centre. As at 2004, the University of Adelaide teaches 18,690 students (comprising 13,769 undergraduates and 4,921 postgraduates) including 3,784 international students from 70 countries. It has 1,063 academic staff.

University of Melbourne—it is the second oldest university in Australia, behind the University of Sydney, and is one of the country's most prestigious. In 2005 the University of Melbourne ranked nineteenth in The Times Higher Education Supplement's list of the world's best universities, the highest rank of any Australian university. The oldest and main campus is in Parkville, an inner suburb of Melbourne just north of the city centre. Other campuses in Melbourne and rural Victoria have been acquired through amalgamation with smaller colleges of advanced education. On November 15, 2005, Vice-Chancellor Glyn Davis announced plans for the university to adopt a system of education similar to the United States tertiary education system, where students earn a generalised bachelor's degree in three years and then specialise by attaining graduate qualifications in a particular area, such as law or medicine. The university was established by Hugh Childers in 1853 by an Act of the Victorian Parliament, and classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush, and the university was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. The university was secular, and forbidden from offering degrees in divinity—the churches could only establish colleges along the northern perimeter. The admission of women in 1881 was a further victory for Victorians over the more conservative ruling council. The first Vice-Chancellor to be paid a salary was Raymond Priestley (1936) followed by John Medley in 1939. After World War II, demand for Commonwealth-funded student places grew in Australia, and the university followed demand by becoming much larger and more inclusive. The University of Melbourne celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2003.

unload—(Australian Rules football) pass the ball.

unmanaged reserve—(of land) a reserve that is not formally placed under the control of a management body (as defined by the Land Administration Act, 1997). Formerly, it was said that such land had not been vested.

Unnamed Conservation Park—one of the largest arid zones in biosphere reserves in the world. The park is managed by Maralinga Tjarutja, the traditional owners of the land together with NPWSA. The park is home to the beautiful princess parrot, scarlet-chested parrot and Australian bustard. Acacias and eucalypts, including the majestic marble gum, desert kurrajong and Ooldea mallee are the dominant plant species. Total area 2,128,90ha. To travel in the park you need to be well-equipped and need to obtain permits from NPWSA, Maralinga Tjarutja Inc. and the Area Administrator of Woomera. The park is located in the southern Great Victoria Desert and northern Nullarbor Plains, 450km northwest of Ceduna off the Eyre Highway.

unoccupied Crown land—Crown land that is neither: (a) held under lease or licence, nor (b) vested in or under the control of trustees.

unsealed road—unpaved road.

up a gumtree—1. baffled; perplexed. 2. in difficulties; having problems; in trouble. 3. confused; incorrect.

up and down like a honeymoon cock/nightie/lavatory seat—1. repeatedly being performed, or taking place both upwards and downwards. 2. to be constantly getting up and sitting down.

up at sparrow fart—to rise, wake up very early.

up each other—1. behaving obsequiously, in a sycophantic manner towards each other. 2. arguing, fighting with each other.

up here for thinking, down there for dancing—(pointing to the head and feet respectively) a statement of self-congratulation on a good idea or clever piece of thinking.

up 'im—1. fight, assault him. 2. scornful remark of dismissal, contempt.

up (oneself)—having an unjustifiably high opinion of (oneself); delude (oneself).

up the donga/donger—out in the country as opposed to the city.

up the duff—1. pregnant. 2. broken; ruined; spoiled.

up the garden path—(see: lead someone up the garden path).

up the pole/putt—1. confused; incorrect; muddled; wrong. 2. broken down; ruined.

up the spout/wop—1. pregnant. 2. ruined; spoiled; in a bad or hopeless situation.

up there Cazaly!—(Australian Rules football) a cry of encouragement (Roy Cazaly was a South Melbourne player in the 1920s and 1930s).

up to dolly's wax—satisfied, full, up to the neck, such as with food. It's an expression born in the nursery, from a time when dolls had solid bodies with a carefully modelled wax head on top.

up to mud—worthless.

up to pussy's bow—absolutely full of food. Expression born in the nursery, where a cat (whether a stuffed toy or the real thing) could easily be dressed up by a little girl to have a bow around its neck. Hence, full to the neck, unable to eat another bite.

up to putty—no good; worthless; broken down.

up-jumped—disagreeably upstart.

Upper House—in parliamentary systems with two houses, the house that is not essential to forming government: Federally, the Senate; in bicameral states, the Legislative Council. In Queensland, which abolished the Legislative Council in 1922, there is only one house of parliament, the Legislative Assembly. The Upper House exercises a significant role within the parliamentary process by acting as a House of Review.

uppish/uppity—self-assertive; arrogant; snobbish.

uptown nigger—(in Aboriginal English) a person who leaves an Aboriginal community in search of acceptance amongst whites.

uranium—a naturally occuring mineral found in surface and ground water, and in soils and rocks in concentrations of a few parts per million. The top 30cm of soil in a typical 700sq m building block in Australia contains approximately 700g of uranium. Uranium, like other minerals, may exist in localised regions of relatively high concentration in the earth's crust. Where the concentration of uranium is sufficiently high, these regions or orebodies may be mined and processed to extract and consolidate the uranium into uranium oxide concentrate. This is what is produced and exported by Australian uranium mines.

uranium exploration—following requests from the British and United States governments, systematic exploration for uranium began in 1944. In 1948 the Commonwealth government offered tax-free rewards for the discovery of uranium orebodies. As a result, several significant discoveries were made 1949-56 by prospectors in northern Australia. These were mined primarily for weapons programs at that time. The development of civil nuclear power stimulated a second wave of exploration activity in the late 1960s, and most of Australia's major orebodies were discovered as a result. This phase was marked by the involvement of major companies with large budgets and using advanced exploration techniques and equipment. Exploration expenditure decreased during the period of the Labor government 1972-75 due to particular government policies, (though that government supported uranium development and took equity in both Mary Kathleen and Ranger). Stimulated by buoyant prices, expenditure increased again after 1975 until the advent of a further Labor government in 1983. Labor policy by then had become inimical to new uranium development, and exploration expenditure generally declined to the mid 1990s partly as a result, but in sympathy with low uranium prices.

us mob—(in Aboriginal English) us; we: e.g., That's us mob there. Us mob are really happy.

US$—the United States dollar.

ute—a 22-year-old engineer named Lewis Brandt designed and successfully pushed the concept of a passenger/load-carrying vehicle, and the first Ford 'Coupé Utility' rolled off the production line in 1934. This vehicle was a huge success, and spawned many similar cars worldwide. However, most of the overseas pickups were more truck than sedan based, and to this day, the mighty ute remains largely a unique Australian body style. Over the years, Ford and General Motors locally manufactured ute versions of their passenger cars, and when the 'first Australian car', the Holden 48-215 (FX) was released in 1948, an FX ute was also made available. Apart from a few dark patches in the '80s and '90s, Holden and Ford have always produced a utility based on their volume passenger car. Today, any load-carrying car too small to be a truck is called a ute (including 4WD traybacks etc), but among the ute purists, and given the spirit of Lew Brandt's original design philosophy, a real Aussie ute is one based on a passenger sedan, preferably with a seamless body-moulded tray (exceptions made for the mighty 'tonner).

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