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Australia Decoded
'C-3'


Central Mountain Wedge and Salt Pans Filled with Water, Tanami Desert, Australia

Central Mountain Wedge and Salt Pans Filled with Water
Tanami Desert, Northern Territory

Bethune Carmichael—Photographic Print
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CBA—Commonwealth Bank of Australia. Also referred to, with disdainful jocularity, as "which bank?" (advert slogan).

CBD—central business district: that section of a city or town that contains the majority of local business offices.

CBPA—Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines, established in 1860 as the replacement for the Aboriginal Protectorate in the state of Victoria. The Coranderrk Station at Healesville was the first station established by the CPBA. The site was selected by leaders of the Kulin nation. In 1886, the introduction of the Aboriginal Act meant that only people considered to be full-blood, and half-blood people over 35 years of age, were allowed to remain on the stations. This led to a decreased labour force on the stations, such as Coranderrk Station, and an increase in fringe-dwelling Aboriginal people in the Melbourne region.

CDEP Scheme—Community Development Employment Projects, ATSIC's largest program, provides a range of employment and training to indigenous participants, allowing them to pool their entitlement to social security benefits and work on projects within their community. Participation in such schemes is voluntary and participants must work to receive payment.

cedar tip moth—(see: red cedar tip moth).

Celcius—a thermodynamic scale of temperature. Temperature in degrees celcius can be obtained from value in degrees Fahrenheit by the following formula: C = (F–32) x 5/9. Australia uses the Celcius scale of temperature, rather than Fahrenheit.

celebrant—a person who performs a rite, especially a priest at the Eucharist or a secular official authorised to conduct civil marriages.

celery-top pinecelery-top pinePhyllocladus aspleniifolius, a Tasmanian rainforest tree, the leaves of which resemble those of celery. These are not true leaves, but cladodes (flattened stems). The development of cladodes is thought to be an adaptation to the low light levels often present in the habitat in which this species occurs. The tree grows to 30m in height and may attain a maximum age of 800 years. Celery-top pine does not bear cones in the accepted sense. Rather, the tiny, blackish seeds are surrounded (but not completely so) by pink, fleshy scales and a fleshy white outgrowth of the seed, called an aril. Those modified 'cones' usually occur in clusters of 3 to 4 and appear at the tips or upper margins of the cladodes. Related to the Huon pine, celery-top pine is a very much more widespread and common tree. It occurs in widely separated localities, e.g. parts of the north-east of Tasmania and on south Bruny Island, the Central Plateau and the Tasman Peninsula. As with all our native Tasmanian conifers, celery-top pine does not tolerate fires at all well. In areas of high rainfall and infrequent fires, celery-top pine may dominate understorey rainforest species. The timber, although not quite as durable as that of the Huon pine, is much used in boat building and furniture construction. In the past, it was used for railway sleepers and mine pit-props.

cello tape—short for cellophane tape; later, as a tradename, Sellotape. Often referred to in Australia as sticky tape, cellophane tape is known in America as Scotch tape.

cemented paste fill—a new technology for the disposal of mine tailings, particularly in uranium mining. In ERA's view, the outcome is that cemented tailings paste offers the most secure and cost-effective solution for containment of tailings in below-surface pits. This technology is proposed for disposing of tailings in excess of the volume that can be accommodated underground. The production of tailings paste involves significant de-watering to produce a material with the consistency of toothpaste. This has a much lower hydraulic conductivity, as well as higher density and strength, than conventional tailings slurries. The result is a significantly reduced level of pore water which could seep from any repository. The addition of a cement product further increases the strength of the material and considerably decreases its permeability, as a consequence of the curing process, which produces a rock-like mass. Cemented paste fill is in use both in Australia and overseas, and is increasingly being adopted by the mining industry.

Central Arnhem LandCentral Arnhem Land—Arnhem Land, the huge Aboriginal Reserve at the Top End of the Northern Territory is home to people speaking a large number of different languages. As an example, in the community of Maningrida on the coast at least ten languages are spoken and the local school has bilingual programs for two of those (Ndjébbana and Burarra). On the island communities of Milingimbi and Elcho Island (Galiwin'ku,) the related clan languages Gupapuyngu and Djambarrpuyngu are spoken. This is a land where traditional life is paramount but where the Yolngu people are happy to share their culture with the outside world, as exemplified by dance groups that perform overseas and the band Yothu Yindi from the north-eastern Gove Peninsula, combining contemporary music with ancient chants and dances. The terrain itself comprises gently sloping terrain and low hills on Cretaceous sandstones and siltstones and lateritised Tertiary material; yellow earthy sands and shallow stony sands; Darwin woollybutt and Darwin stringybark open forest to woodland with grass understorey.

Central Australia—a stark and dramatic desert region at the heart of the Australian continent. A cloudless sky of intense blue wraps seamlessly around the sparse region of bright orange-red earth, as the brilliant sunlight glares in every direction. The night sky is a breathtaking display of stars, the brilliance and number exceeding anything seen anywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. Temperatures vary sharply between day and night as well as by the season, and the seasons are divided distinctly. Torrents of rain bring the desert alive during the brief season known as the Wet, and the drought that marks most months of the year is known as the Dry. Central Australia is also known as the Red Centre.

Central Australia Railway—owned by the Commonwealth Government Railways, connects Port Augusta, SA with Alice Springs, NT by a track 771 miles long. The track crept up by degrees from Oodnadatta; and when the first passenger train arrived in August 1929, the entire population of Alice Springs, numbering about 200, turned out to welcome it. The parlour coach and the dining-car were objects of wonder and admiration. The cost of living came down rapidly, petrol prices were cut by one-half to 3s. 2d. a gallon, and the cost of transporting groceries, which had been £53 per ton, was considerably reduced.

Central Australian cabbage palmCentral Australian cabbage palm -Livistona mariae. Palm Valley, situated in the Finke Gorge National Park in the MacDonnell Range system, Northern Territory is of considerable interest to tourists and scientists alike largely because of the presence of a stand of the relict cabbage palm, Livistona mariae F. Muell. This species of Livistona is restricted to an area of about 60sq km on the Finke River and its tributaries. It is a relict species separated by about 1000km from the nearest Livistona to the north. The closest relative to L. mariae occurs on the Fortescue River in the Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia, a stand in many ways similar to that at Palm Valley. Although the explorer Ernest Giles was the first to discover the palms in the Finke Gorge in 1872, he almost certainly bypassed Palm Valley itself, and its discovery is attributed to a Lutheran missionary from Hermannsburg Mission some time later. Since this time a total of 333 plant species have been recorded from the valley (about a quarter of the total number of species recorded for the whole of Central Australia). About 10% of these species can be considered to be of rare or restricted distribution in Central Australia.

Central Australian fan palm—(see: Central Australian cabbage palm).

Central Board Appointed to Watch over the Interests of Aborigines (VIC)—an administrative board appointed by the Victorian government in 1860 to control and oversee the lives of Aboriginal people. The board developed policies and assumed central control of Aboriginal people's lives and living conditions, and directed the managers of missions and reserves to implement them. By 1867 it was managing reserves at Framlingham and Coranderrk, had indirect control of a number of missions which received some government assistance, and administered a number of small reserves and ration depots. A school was constructed on the Coranderrk reserve with separate living quarters for the children. The manager of Coranderrk travelled around the Indigenous communities removing 'neglected' children to be taken to live at the school, although he had no lawful power to do so until 1869. In that year, the Victorian Parliament passed the Aborigines Protection Act. The pre-existing board became the Central Board for the Protection of the Aborigines, and in 1957 it was reformed as the Aborigines Welfare Board.

Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines (VIC)—(CBPA), a direct result of the McLean Report, which recommended the assimilation of Aborigines into the wider society. The CBPA replaced the original Aboriginal Protectorate in the state of Victoria. The first station established by the CBPA was the Coranderrk Station at Healesville, which site was chosen by leaders of the Kulin nation. In 1886, the introduction of the Aborigines Protection Act meant that only people considered to be full-blood, and half-blood people over 35 years of age, were allowed to remain on the stations. This policy led to a decreased labour force on the stations and an increase in fringe-dwelling Aboriginal people in the Melbourne region. The Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines was abolished under the Aborigines Act 1957.

Central Deserts—the interior of Australia. Take the Stuart Highway (or The Track, as word-thrifty locals call it) from Port Augusta, just outside Adelaide, to Darwin, at the steaming tropical rim of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and you'll pass through the empty vastness of the Simpson Desert and its patterned sand dunes, the formidable barrier of the blood-red MacDonnell Ranges, and the edges of the vast and shrubby Tanami Desert. Apart from the sand in the Simpson Desert and the crimson earth of the McConnell Ranges, the rest is pretty much spinifex, heat, blue sky and a whole lot of loneliness. This is the godforsaken, bleak country where Mad Max III was filmed. This is 'beyond the black stump' country. But it's the desert's unearthly stillness and emptiness that make the interior such an unforgettable experience. After a while, the monotony and boredom of the landscape induce a matching mental emptiness. Since the Stuart Highway was sealed, old timers and hardcore off-roaders no longer think of it as a true outback track. They prefer the more rugged terrain of the old drovers' routes: the Oodnadatta, Birdsville and Tanami tracks, the Gunbarrel Highway and the 'bomb roads'. But there are still things to do for those not interested in driving for driving's sake or seeing 'how she handles the wet'.

Central Eastern Rainforest ReserveCentral Eastern Rainforest Reserves—a World Heritage area protecting subtropical and temperate rainforests. Sites along predominantly along the Great Escarpment on the Australia's central eastern border, have been selected for their exceptional biodiversity or rarity, including more than 200 rare or threatened plant and animal species. The parks and reserves are variously comprised of five major, recognised rainforest types, including some of the few remaining stands of old-growth forest in New South Wales. The outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species are of international significance for science and conservation.

Central Highlands—a bioregion characterised by cool to cold high plateau with alluvial valleys, and humid cool to cold lower plateau with sandy to clay loam soils. Vegetation ranges from dry sclerophyll woodlands and wet sclerophyll forest on the lower plateau to alpine complexes and coniferous forest patches on the higher plateau. Land use is a combination of conservation, forestry, grazing and water catchment.

Central Highlands Sandstone Belt—sediments near the junction of the Bowen Basin and the Great Artesian Basin in Queensland’s Central Highlands have become dissected to form gorges, scarps and plateaus of the sandstone belt.

Central Kimberley bioregion—hilly to mountainous country with parallel siliceous ranges of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks with skeletal sandy soils supporting hummock grasses with scattered trees, and with earths on Proterozoic volcanics in valleys supporting ribbon grass with scattered trees. Open forests of river red gum and pandanus occur along drainage lines. Dry hot tropical, sub-humid to semi-arid, summer rainfall.

Central Land Council—(CLC) a statutory body representing Aboriginal people in the Central Australian bioregion of the Northern Territory. Creation of the CLC, along with the Northern Land Council (NLC), was a major result the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Land Rights (1966). As with all the Indigenous land councils, the CLC's responsibilities include: protection of the traditional landowners’ interests in their land; assistance with land claims and negotiating on their behalf; and the protection of sacred sites in the central area. The CLC is one of four councils established as a result of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976.

Central Mackay Coast bioregion—humid tropical coastal ranges and plains. Rainforests (complex evergreen and semi-deciduous notophyll vine forest), Eucalyptus open forests and woodlands, Melaleuca spp. wetlands.

Central Ranges—(see: Central Ranges bioregion).

Central Ranges bioregion—a bioregion that displays a high proportion of ranges and derived-soil plains, interspersed with red sandplains. The ranges support mixed wattle scrub or callitris woodlands over hummock and tussock grasslands. The sandplains support low, open woodlands of either desert oak or mulga over hummock grasslands. Low, open woodlands of ironwood and corkwood and grasses often fringe the ranges. The bioregion is arid, with summer and winter rain.

Central Reserves—a region of Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. These communities are directly accessed by the Great Central Road.

Central rock artCentral rock art—the upper-western region of New South Wales is known for its outstanding Aboriginal art works. In particular, some of the finest known examples of Aboriginal rock art are at Mount Grenfell, outside the town of Cobar.

central rock rat—once found in the Central Australian mountain ranges west and north of Alice Springs, in rocky hills and outcrops, it is now thought to be critically endangered. Like other rock rats, it has a swollen tail which might be used to store fat for harsh times.

Central West—a square-shaped region at the western edge of the state of Victoria. It contains Little Desert National Park, the Grampians National Park, historic Warracknabeal, the rock-climbing mecca of Mount Arapiles, the Wimmera agricultural plains, the rich wool area of the Hamilton, Horsham and the Western District and the vineyards of Great Western. The Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung peoples inhabited this territory for 22,000 years prior to European settlement. The Grampians is approximately three hours from Melbourne along the Western Freeway, through Ballarat to Ararat and west towards Hall's Gap.

Centralian Superbasin—the eastern Arunta Block in central Australia forms a metamorphic corridor between the Amadeus and Georgina basins, which are structural remnants of the once much larger ~900-300 Ma Centralian Superbasin. In the Harts Range (eastern Arunta Block), sedimentary and igneous precursors to the upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies Harts Range Metamorphic Complex were deposited in a continental rift environment. Analyses of detrital zircons from two metapelites, one metavolcanic and a metaquartzite, show that the depositional age of the protoliths to the Harts Range Metamorphic Complex is much younger than previously thought. These samples contain concordant detrital zircons with major age populations at ~1000-1300 Ma and ~600-700 Ma, and individual detrital zircon grains that may be as young as ~510-520 Ma. The detrital age distribution from these metasediments is very similar to that of the mid-Cambrian (~520 Ma) Goyder Formation in the Amadeus Basin, and with Cambrian passive margin sequences developed along the eastern Palaeopacific margin of eastern Australia (for example, the Adelaide Rift Complex). The system is tilted downwards to the east, a consequence of the late arrival of the eastern states in the formation of Australia. The only place where the superbasin geology breaks the surface is in the Savory Basin area, partly within the Rudall River/Karlamilyi National Park.

centre-board shed—a sheep-shearing shed in which shearing is done in the middle (rather than along each side).

Centrebet—founded in 1992, licensed and sanctioned by the Northern Territory Government. It has upward of 300 books open at any time, including football (soccer), cricket, rugby and most other sporting events known to man. Centrebet offers straight betting, parlays and straight-up win betting, and is unique in that it gives its clients the option of combining their choices in one parlay bet, which can include different sports if the bettor wishes.

century—a score, etc of a hundred in a sporting event, especially a hundred runs by one batsman in cricket.

CERD—short name for the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination.

CERRA

CERRA—Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia. This area currently contains more than 50 World Heritage-listed national parks, flora reserves and nature reserves. These sites provide habitat for more than 200 rare or threatened plant and animal species. The parks and reserves are variously comprised of five major, recognised rainforest types, including some of the few remaining stands of old-growth forest in New South Wales. The balance is made up of large, remnant pockets and regrowth areas of rainforest. Most of the nominated properties were accepted for inclusion on the World Heritage List in November of 1986, as the Australian East Coast Temperate and Subtropical Rainforest Parks World Heritage Listing. Additions to the nomination since the original submission have increased the number of reserves and national parks in the property, with the nomination formalized in 1994, and renamed the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia, or CERRA.

cert—a certainty (especially in horse-racing): e.g. The grey's a cert to win tomorrow.

certificate of entitlement—the legal right to reside within that legality's jurisdiction.

Certificate of Freedom or Pardon—colonial convicts could earn a Certificate of Freedom after fulfilling the obligation of "assignment". Males were most often assigned as labourers to private settlers, and female convicts as house servants in private homes. After several years of satisfactory service, convicts were entitled to apply for a Ticket of Leave (a form of parole), and with continued good behaviour they would eventually obtain a Certificate of Freedom or Pardon.

certified agreement—a collective enterprise agreement that has been approved and certified by the federal Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC). A certified agreement must be endorsed by a majority of the employees for which it is intended, to qualify for certification. Certified agreements can be made directly between an employer and a group of employees, or between an employer and a union or unions representing a group of employees. Prior to certification, the AIRC examines all submitted agreements to ensure that they do not unfairly disadvantage employees in relation to their terms and conditions of employment. During the life of a certified agreement, all industrial action in pursuit of claims against the employer is illegal, as subscribed under the Workplace Relations Act 1996.

chaff—money.

chaff-cutter—any vehicle that has an excessively or strangely noisy motor.

 chain gangschain gangs—(now often thought to be typically American, but recorded first from Australia in 1822). The worst type of convicts were assigned to hard labour in iron gangs and set to work on roads. Road gang reports (1827-1830) supplied convict number, name, ship, job, casualties, discharge details, the place stationed and the overseer. There is also a list of men in irons on Norfolk Island and Moreton Bay (1839-1840). State Archives hold other records for iron gangs and road parties.

chair-borne—(said of an administrator) not active.

chalk and cheese—a comparison indicating a total dissimilarity between two people, situations or things: e.g., Trisha and her mother are like chalk and cheese.

chalkie—school teacher.

Chambers PillarChambers Pillar Historical Reserve—the main feature of the 340ha reserve is the pillar of sandstone which towers 50 metres above the Simpson Desert plain, about 160km south of Alice Springs, NT. The sandstone deposits were laid down in the area 350 million years ago. Since then, wind and rain have eroded away the softer material, leaving this solitary column, an eerie pillar of rock. John McDouall Stuart, heading north on his earliest attempt to cross Australia, first recorded the pillar in April 1860 and named it after James Chambers, one of his South Australian sponsors. The pillar has many carvings made by the early explorers, including John Ross, who led the second expedition to cross the country in 1870. Alfred Giles followed two years later. Until the coming of the railway in the 1920s, the Pillar was to be a landmark in the desert on the long overland journey from Adelaide to Alice Springs.

champers—champagne.

chance (one's) arm—take a risk.

change (one's) name by deed poll—officially change one's name.

Channel Country—a vast bioregion in Central Australia, characterised by low hills and noted as much for its bright, orange-red soil as for its spectacular cycle of flood and drought. It is an extensive system of interconnecting streams straddling four catchments in four states. The middle reaches of the Cooper, Diamantina and Georgina basins are called the Channel Country because of a plethora of channels, associated waterholes and adjoining floodplains. Between the shallow valleys, these rivers occupy rolling bedrock downs with tabletop hills and plateaus. Anastomosing channels dominate the river and periodically spill discharge down flood-channels that meander, braid or reticulate on floodplains that in places are up to 60km wide. Scorchingly hot and barren for most of the year, seasonal rains transform the bare, dusty earth into lush, green pastures virtually overnight. In bloom, it yields forb fields and Mitchell grass in the downs, and coolibah woodlands or lignum and saltbush shrublands nearer to the braided river system. Excess water from this area generally feeds into the Lake Eyre system. Flooding can cause Lake Eyre to fill and overflow, a very rare occurrence. The Channel Country sprawls across the outback regions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and New South Wales.

channel-billed cuckoochannel-billed cuckoo—at 58cm—65cm, the channel-billed cuckoo is the largest parasitic cuckoo in the world. Apart from its large size, its massive, pale, down-curved bill, grey plumage (darker on the back and wings) and long, barred tail make it impossible to confuse with any other bird. In flight the long tail and wings give the bird a crucifix-shaped silhouette. The call of the channel-billed cuckoo, a loud kawk followed by a more rapid and weaker awk-awk-awk..., is as distinctive as the bird's appearance. The call may be given when perched, but is most often given in flight. A migratory bird from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, it arrives in Australia between August and October each year. It is found in tall, open forests, in northern and eastern Australia, usually where host species occur. The channel-billed cuckoo lays its eggs in the nests of the Australian magpie, the pied currawong, and members of the crow family. Unlike many other cuckoos, the young birds do not evict the host's young or eggs from the nest, but simply grow faster and demand all the food, thus starving the others. The birds leave Australia in February or March.

chap/chappie—fellow; person.

Chardonnay—a wine of French origin, the typical white wine of the Burgundy region; known in the Champagne district as blanc de blanc; Australia now produces many of the best Chardonnays in the world.

charge—an alcoholic drink.

charge like a bull at a gate—act impetuously without thought in a rushed manner.

charge like a wounded bull—to overprice an item or service.

charlie—girl; woman.

Charlie Wheeler—(rhyming slang) sheila, i.e. a girl or woman.

charming!—sardonic or sarcastic observation of someone's behaviour, indicating the speaker's disapproval or contempt while implying one's sense of cultural superiority.

charter—a written document, delivered by the sovereign of a country or its legislature, granting privileges or recognising rights.

Charters TowersCharters Towers—an inland town in north Queensland that had its beginnings in 1872 as a goldfield. Hundreds of gold mining companies were floated there during the 1880s and '90s, and it was during this exuberant period of growth that a number of historic Victorian buildings were constructed. The railway arrived in 1882, a miners union was established in 1886 and, in 1893, Andrew Dawson (who went on to become the first Labor premier in the world in 1899 when he became Queensland premier) was elected as the local member. In 1884 'Breaker' Morant married Daisy May O'Dwyer (later Daisy Bates) in Charters Towers. Due to the gold boom between 1872 and 1899, Charters Towers operated the only Stock Exchange outside of a capital city. During this period, the population was approximately 27,000, making it Queensland's largest city other than the capital, Brisbane. Charters Towers was also affectionately known as 'The World', as it was said that anything one might desire could be had in 'The Towers', leaving no reason to travel elsewhere.

chasey—children's game of tag.

chassis—(of a woman) body; figure.

chat—1. a louse. 2. a dirty or slovenly person.

chat up—talk persuasively in order to get one's way, particularly in obtaining sexual favours. Let's go out on the town and chat up some nice sorts.

Chateau cardboard—(joc.) cheap wine in a cardboard container—usually with a spout, to serve at parties and such.

chatty—dirty; slovenly.

cheap at half the price—sardonic expression of satisfaction over the cost of something.

checking (one's) eyelids for holes—sleeping; having a nap.

cheekycheeky—impudent; brazen; audacious; rude.

cheerio—good-bye (Qld).

cheerios—red-coloured cocktail sausages.

cheers—(Brit. inf.) 1. thanks. 2. goodbye. 3. a toast when drinking alcohol.

cheese and kisses—(rhyming slang) the missus, i.e. wife.

cheesed off—annoyed; bored; exasperated.

cheesy kiss—(rhyming slang) miss (i.e., a young woman).

Chelsea bun—a kind of currant bun in the form of a flat spiral.

chemist—a dealer in medicinal drugs, usually also selling other medical goods and toiletries: a pharmacy or a pharmacist.

chenopod—salt tolerant xenomorphic (plant characteristics determined by ability to resist drought) shrubs, sub-shrubs or forbs. The leaves are frequently covered with scales or soft hairs; some are leafless with fleshy jointed stems. Many have pores which excrete salt.

chenopod shrublandchenopod shrubland—covers 8% of the arid zone. The gibber of Sturt's Stony Desert is chenopod shrubland, as are the tablelands around Woomera. Chenopods grow around salt lakes, claypans and interdunal corridors, anywhere where there is salinity. Saltbush is an extremely important plant as it provides perennial shrublands with a large distribution. Old man saltbush reaches a height of 2m, and spreads 4m—5m across. Bassia make up many of the burrs that can cause great discomfort in your swag, or when stepped upon with bare feet, especially cannonball. Ruby saltbush has delicious berries, however the leaves have dangerously high levels of oxalate. The bluebushes have some beautiful hop-like flowers, Mareana sedifolia known to grow for over 300 years. Samphire is a delicious salad vegetable, best blanched for 30 seconds in boiling water. Chenopod shrubland provided the food required by the endangered stick nest rat, as well as providing grazing country for the kangaroo, which graze on the grasses and herbs growing between the chenopod after rain, and fall back on the chenopod at other times. Cattle and sheep do extremely well on chenopods; the meat from sheep develops a unique flavour when grazed on it. Chenopod shrublands are very simple eco systems. They appear barren, like the plains north of Port Augusta, and very little research has been done into their biodiversity, other than their stock fodder qualities. Arid zone chenopods have fascinating seed dispersal techniques. Sclerolina use animal dispersal—spiny fruits that stick in animal pads—interestingly none of the chenopods have hooks to attach to fur. Mariana have light fruit with papery wings that blow about. Sansola use the bush rolling to disperse, similar to tumbleweed. Atriplex have wacky wings like Mariana. Rigodia and Encolina all have fleshy fruits that attract birds.

Chenopodiaceae—a family of highly variable plant forms: Herbs (mostly), or herbaceous climbers, or shrubs (some), or trees (few and small), or lianas (few). Nearly all are halophytic, some xerophytic, and many are glaucus. Flowers are solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’. Economically, this family contributes beetroot, silver beet, spinach, and saltbush pastures.

cheque—the British spelling of check.

cheque-proud—'flush', and elated at being so.

Cherbourg—church influence: Church of England. Cherbourg is an Aboriginal community situated near Murgon, approximately three hours drive from Brisbane, it is the oldest and the largest Aboriginal community in Queensland. The original mission was located at Durundur, but relocated to Cherbourg (at that time called Barambah). The Cherbourg people have developed a culture deriving from 40 different groups, including the original group from this area, the Waka Waka people.

cherry ballartExocarpos cupressiformis a small, cypress-like tree and its fruit. The tree is a parasite that joins its roots to those of surrounding trees to rob them of their nutrients. The common name ballart comes from the Woiwurrung word, bulait. Wurundjeri people ate the red juicy part. Also known as native cherry.

cherrypicker—a large nose.

Chesterton Range—at about 630m above sea level, Chesterton Range is one of the higher localities in Queensland, 580km west-northwest of Brisbane. The nearest more populous place is the town of Mitchell which is 67km away with a population of around 1,000. The nearest sea is the Coral Sea which is part of the South Pacific Ocean about 450km north-east of Chesterton Range.

chestnut-breasted mannikinchestnut-breasted mannikinLonchura castaneothorax, a medium-size finch. Males and females are nearly identical in appearance. Like most members of the Lonchura family there are subtle as to the sex. Males will of course sing and do a courtship dance. This song is actually quite melodious and the males will sing quite. Other birds will peer at a singing male as though hanging on every note he sings. Peering is not necessarily a sign of a hen, however, as other males will peer as well, but singing and peering usually precedes any mating. The physical signs for a male include a broader, bolder head and beak, blacker face with less flecking, and a brighter chestnut color on the breast. It is also said that the tail is a brighter yellow on the males. Found in northern and eastern Australia, from the Kimberley to Cape York Peninsula, and south to Nowra in New South Wales. It feeds on reed beds, fringing swamps and lagoons. When available these birds will gorge on cultivated crops, to the point of such obesity that they are no longer able to fly.

chew (someone's) ear—1. detain (someone) by talking at length; bore with incessant talk. 2. scold, reprimand, berate (someone). 3. cadge, borrow money from (someone).

chew and spew—1. any cheap cafe or restaurant serving take-away or fast-foods. 2. take-away food; fast-food; junk food.

chew the arse off (someone)—1. severely scold, reprimand (someone); 2. beat (someone) up; assault, bash (someone).

chew the arse out of a rag doll—- to exhibit extreme hunger.

chew the crotch out of an Afghan camel-driver's jocks—to exhibit extreme hunger.

chewie on yer boot!—(Australian Rules football) a call by opposition supporters or players to a player, usually when he is taking a set shot for goal. It is designed to upset his concentration when kicking.

chewie/chewy—1. chewing-gum. 2. tough eating.

Chichester RangeChichester Range—rises sharply from the surrounding coastal plain to include peaks, gorges and rock pools. Scattered gums and spinifex clumps cover the stony plateau, which slopes down to the bed of the Fortescue River. Hummock grasslands form the dominant vegetation, with stretches of open woodland and shrubland along watercourses. The northern portion of the plateau ends abruptly at a rugged escarpment, and the Chichester Range is separated from the adjoining Mungaroona Range wilderness by a well-used station road. Some of the area's permanent waterholes are locally popular recreation sites. Located north of the Fortescue River in the Millstream-Chichester National Park in Western Australia.

Chief Justice—the senior judge of a court. The Chief Justice is responsible for ensuring the orderly and expeditious discharge of the business of the Court.

Chief Protector (Queensland)—a position established by the Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897 (Qld). Queensland's Chief Protector was empowered to remove Aboriginal people onto and between reserves, and to hold children in dormitories. The Act was repealed by the Aboriginal Preservation and Protection Act 1939 (Qld), with which the authority of the Chief Protector was transferred to the Director of Native Welfare.

Chief Protector of Aborigines—a person to whom "protective powers" over the Aboriginal population of Western Australia was delegated. Created under the Aborigines Act of 1897, the powers of the Chief Protector played a significant and increasingly obtrusive role in the lives of Aborigines in WA. The amended Aborigines Act of 1905 extended the powers to every aspect of their lives: sexual relations, social relations, marriage, geographical mobility, residence, employment, income, property ownership and management, education, custody of children, where they could camp, and what tribal practices they were permitted. Later copied to varying degrees in other states, Western Australia was the first to make legal provision for the control of Aboriginal Australians.

Child MigrationChild Migration Scheme—introduced to relieve the pressure of housing post-war British orphans and to populate the colonies with "good, white stock". One of these colonies was Australia, and what child languishing in a cold and bleak English orphanage would refuse the promise of sun, sand, kangaroos and fruit that falls from trees? Between 2000 and 10,000 British orphans were sent to Australia, where they found the promises of love and happiness were empty and their lives became no better than those of slaves, under the rule of the Sisters of Mercy and the Christian Brothers. The Christian Brothers priests in Australia used the children as slave labor to build their mission, as part of a scheme to populate mostly Aboriginal Australia with "White Christians". The priests sexually abused the kids—a fact which was generally known back in England, as was the overall scheme—all the way up to the Queen. The children often were not orphans but were told their mothers were dead—and the mothers never gave permission for their children to be relinquished for adoption. The mothers were told it was "too late" to reclaim their children when they went to get them back from foster care, that they had been "adopted" in Britain. The mothers were never told that their children had been sent to Australia. Only one in 10,000 was ever adopted. England won't acknowledge or apologize about what was done and only recently has begun to help fund reuniting the adult children with their mothers.

Children's Court—deals with all complaints of offences alleged to have been committed by young people between the ages of 10 and 17 years (inclusive). If the young person charged has turned 18 after the date of the alleged offence, then the person still appears before the Children's Court. The Children's Court does not only hear criminal matters. If a child has been seriously abused or neglected, an application can be made by a police officer or an officer from the Department for Community Development, for the court to make a declaration that the child is in need of care and protection. The court may order that the child be committed to the Department for Community Development for a period. If such an order is made, the child is described as a ward of the state. A judge of the Children's Court has the same powers in sentencing as a Supreme Court judge, and can also hear appeals against the decisions of Children's Court magistrates or Justices of the Peace.

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