Australian Dictionary

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Cairns Railroad Workers

Railway workers on the Cairns Railway with a view of Glacier Rock in the background, ca. 1891
Item is held by John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland., Public Domain, Link

c/-—abbreviation for 'care of' in, for example, an address.

cab sav—Cabernet Sauvignon (a red wine blend).

cabbage coralLobophytum crassum, an encrusting type leather coral, it forms colonies that look like cabbage leaves. The polyps are on the outside edge of the "leaves". This coral is the color of zooxanthellae, or light brown. Some leather corals can be aggressive but this species is easy to contain.

cabbage gumEucalyptus pauciflora, E. amplifolia, E. papuana: these trees sustain the heathy woodland, which grows on nutrient-poor, sandy soils. Only a few remnants of cabbage gum woodland survive.

cabbage palmLivistona mariae produces an edible, cabbage-shaped fruit at the apex of the tree. Collection of the cabbage requires felling of the tree and destruction of the tissues surrounding the edible leaf-sheath that constitutes the cabbage. Because palm harvesting is usually done in wild populations, changes to the forest ecology can occur. In Australia, a number of species of the genus Livistona are known as cabbage palms. In particular, L. benthamii and L. humilis were eaten in the Northern Territory; L. mariae was the most widely spread of the cabbage palms, and was also harvested by early settlers.

cabbage patcher—Victorians, as they are referred to by New South Welshmen; from the relatively small size of the State of Victoria.

cabbage tree—(see: cabbage palm).

Cabbage Tree Island—a rugged volcanic peak thrusting one hundred metres out of the water, measuring one kilometre long and half as wide. On the western face of the island grows a rainforest dominated by cabbage-tree palms. This is the only known nesting site of Gould's petrel, which visits the island for three months of the year, starting in October. Eventually, rabbits that had been introduced to the island in 1906 had eaten the understorey plants, leaving the petrels vulnerable to attack by pied currawongs. Sticky fruit from the bird-lime tree entangled chicks and adults alike. During 1997 to 1999 the NPWS eradicated rabbits from the island and introduced control measures for both the currawongs and the bird-lime trees in the breeding areas. Eventually the understorey plants will regenerate and the natural ecological balance will be restored. Public access remains restricted due to the present environmental fragility. The island, which lies offshore from the entrance to Port Stephens in NSW, is still inhabited by tribes of the Bundjalung nation.

cabbage-tree hat—1. (hist.) a wide-brimmed hat woven from cabbage-tree leaves, worn by young urban roughs as a badge of identity. The palm leaves of the cabbage tree were stripped, boiled, sun-bleached and plaited, and the fine plaits were stitched by hand into rounds to form a hat shape. These hats were commonly worn by men in colonial Australia. 2. (rhyming slang) rat (i.e., informant).

Cabinet—the decision-making body of the federal government. Policy decisions are made in Cabinet meetings of senior government ministers. Apart from the announcement of decisions, Cabinet discussions are not disclosed. Ministers are bound by the principle of Cabinet solidarity. This closely follows the British model of a Cabinet government that is responsible to Parliament. Cabinet is not mentioned in the Australian Constitution. The decisions of Cabinet are given legal effect by their formal ratification by the Federal Executive Council.

cabinet government—a system of government in which the most important decisions are made by cabinet ministers, who are members of parliament and who are supported by a majority in the Lower House of Parliament.

Cable Beach—the main swimming beach in Broome, WA, is the famous Cable Beach, which is white sand and clear waters. The northern end of the beach offers 4WD access, and hosts a small nudist section. At the end of Cable Beach is Gantheaume Point, where there are some fabulous cliffs. There are also some dinosaur footprints set within the cliffs. Also on Gantheaume Point is a lovely rock pool called Anastasia's Pool.

cable trams—in 1885 the Melbourne Tramway and Omnibus Company began operating Melbourne's first cable tram line. The first service ran from Spencer St/Flinders St, to Hawthorn Bridge. Soon, a Melbourne cable tramway system was running from the city to nearby suburbs, but as the city grew the technical limits of the cable tram system became apparent, and electric trams were developed for lines to more distant suburbs. The last cable trams were replaced by electric trams in 1940.

caboodle—all; the whole lot (also: the whole kit and caboodle).

cack (oneself)—laugh heartily: e.g., The movie was so funny, I cacked meself.

cackleberry—an egg.

cactus—1. dead. 2. not functioning. e.g., You'll be cactus when Dave learns that you lost his money at the T.A.B.

caddy—a tea caddy—a small box for holding tea. This “caddy” is a corruption of the Malay word kati, which was a measure in which tea was sold (a kati was a weight of about one and a third pounds in the old measurements). Originally a “tea caddy” was a small box that held just that amount of tea.

cadge—to obtain by wheedling, pleading or begging.

Cadigal—an Aboriginal tribe of New South Wales. Cadigal land lies south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham. Part of the southern boundary is defined by Cooks River. On the western border lies the territory of the Wangal nation, which extends along the southern shore of the Parramatta River to Parramatta. Cadigal and Wangal people together are the Eora people. Several suburbs close to the city were also once part of the Cadigal region.

Cadigal and Wangal nation—Cadigal history, like the history of many Aboriginal clans, is based on oral traditions handed down by many generations over millenia. Following This included trapping birds and animals, exploiting fish and shellfish, gathering plants, removing bark from trees to create carrying dishes and canoes, making use of sandstone shelters for occupation and the creation of art. European settlement the Cadigal and Wangal clans were dispersed, dispossessed and alienated from their traditional lands in New South Wales. Aboriginal land was created in the Dreamtime and the Cadigal and Wangal clans saw themselves as the custodians. Their spiritual beliefs honoured this unique association, paying homage to the ancestors, the mythical beings who created the landscape which was the lifeblood sustaining the clans. Prior to the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, the Cadigal and Wangal people successfully lived along Cooks' River for thousands of years. Over this time, an enormous body of knowledge and special skills were developed to harness the life-sustaining resources that the river and the surrounding lands provided. This included trapping birds and animals, exploiting fish and shellfish, gathering plants, removing bark from trees to create carrying dishes and canoes, making use of sandstone shelters for occupation and the creation of art.

caff—cafe; coffee shop.

Cahill Formation—represents the major provenance of soils and stream sediments in the Arnhem Land region, together with the Kombolgie Formation. Jabila ore occurs in Cahill Formation schists, which also host the Ranger uranium ore deposits. It is claimed that the Cahill Formation schists in the waste rock dumps at Ranger Mine will not cause any detriment to the environment. Nevertheless, the proposal by Jabila of constructing pits in the Cahill formation for tailing disposal was rejected by the ERA, because the schists are composed of minerals that weather comparatively rapidly and would produce leachate into the water supply. Instead, the geo-chemically benign nature and structural integrity of the Kombolgie Formation, it is thought, will neither leach nor create an environmental impact.

Cairns—the most famous destination in tropical Far North Queensland. Cairns exploded into existence in 1876 when a track was blazed from the Hodgkinson gold field west of Mareeba of the interior to the coast at Trinity Bay. Within weeks, Cairns was carved out of the mangrove swamps, a canvas town with a population of over three hundred. The town stretches along a spectacular coastline and is surrounded by national parks, including the World Heritage-listed Daintree rainforest. Very high rainfall and fertile basalt soils combine to produce luxuriant tropical rainforests cloaking this part of the Eastern Highlands, an ancient, dissected volcanic plateau containing some of Queensland's highest peaks. Cairns takes its name from the State Governor of the day, Sir William Cairns, who does not appear to have taken much interest in his namesake, then a swampy tent settlement. For generations prior to European settlement, the Tropical North was home to numerous Indigenous tribes who inhabited the coastal plains and the hinterland. Many galleries of Aboriginal art and craft can be found throughout Cairns and the surrounding area. Today, stretched along a spectacular coastline and surrounded by National Parks, Cairns is a cosmopolitan town with the relaxed ambiance of a tropical resort. This coastal region is framed by two features of such pristine beauty and exceptional value they have been listed by the World Heritage Society. Acclaimed as amongst the world's most wonderful assets are the Cairns was the main port for mineral and timber reserves of the Atherton Tablelands.

cake-hole—the mouth.


calcareous desert soils—are shallow, powdery, caleareous soils, sedentary on limestone. They are covered by a shrub steppe, and are particularly susceptible to wind and water erosion, especially where their vegetative cover has been reduced by overgrazing.

calcarosols—these soils contain calcium carbonate (as limestone, calcrete or other forms) as soft or hard fragments or as a solid layer. They occur in areas with low rainfall. Limitations for agriculture include shallow depth, low water retention and wind erosion on the sandier forms. High salinity, alkalinity and sodicity may also be a problem. Soil fertility deficiencies are widespread. Also known as solonised brown soils; grey-brown and red calcareous soils; calcareous sands.

caldera—a large volcanic crater, created by explosion or internal collapse of a volcanic cone.

Callistemon—commonly known as bottlebrushes, they are closely related to paperbark melaleucas, which also have bottlebrush-shaped flower spikes. Most bottlebrushes occur in the east and south-east of Australia. Two species occur in the south-west of Western Australia and four species in New Caledonia. Bottlebrushes can be found growing from Australia's tropical north to the temperate south. They often grow in damp or wet conditions, such as along creek beds or in areas which are prone to floods. The flower spikes form in spring and summer and are made up of a number of individual flowers. Pollen forms on the tip of a long coloured stalk called a filament. It is these filaments which give the flower spike its colour and distinctive 'bottlebrush' shape. Each flower produces a small, woody fruit containing hundreds of tiny seeds. The seeds are usually not released from the fruits for several years, but in some species the fruits open after about a year. Fire also stimulates the opening of the fruits in some bottlebrushes. The new leaves of many bottlebrushes are very ornamental. The leaves are often coloured and, in some species, they are covered with fine, soft hairs.

Callitris—the Australian cypress-pine, genus Callitris, is one of a number of Gondwanan conifer genera that still survive. Callitris forests are generally drought-resistant and many are frost-tolerant. They are usually found in areas with a rainfall of 300-650mm a year, from the arid tropics around the Hamersley Ranges and through the coastal eucalypt forests of the Northern Territory to rain-shadow areas in the Snowy Mountains. The largest tracts of Callitris forests occur in eastern Australia, where they are found discontinuously from the Murray River to the Great Dividing Range north of Injune in Queensland.

CALM—Conservation and Land Management, a federal program in which each State has a department.

caltropTribulus terrestris, a pervasive weed with burrs that are injurious to the feet of humans and livestock, damaging to tyres, and the cause of nitrate poisoning of sheep, if ingested. The wedge-shaped burr has 2 long, sharp spurs and 2 shorter ones. A significant problem in mainland locations, including cultivated crops, overgrazed pastures and under watered lawns, stockyards and roadsides.

Calvert Scientific Exploring Expedition—In 1896, Albert Calvert, a London-based gold-mining engineer with interests in Western Australia, sponsored an expedition to fill in the unexplored blanks on the map and, hopefully, find some likely gold-bearing country into the bargain. South Australian surveyor Lawrence (Larry) Wells, then 36 years old, was appointed leader. The party sailed from Adelaide for Geraldton in May 1896 then took a train to Mullewa. Here, Larry Wells purchased 20 camels. Setting out from Lake Way near the present-day site of Wiluna on 13 June, the seven adventurers headed north-east into the great unknown. After four months of mapping and exploring they reached the Great Sandy Desert. Larry Wells made the fatal decision to split the party into two groups. Larry Wells's party headed to Joanna Spring, 185 miles away, on a direct bearing of 356 degrees, but soon hit trouble. Intense heat, lack of fodder for the camels and inadequate water supplies took their toll. In desperation, Wells dumped most of his equipment at Adverse Well. The party made a dash for the Fitzroy River with the little water they had. They reached the river on 6 November, without a drop of water left. The bodies of the other party were found a year later, after several searches. The two had encountered salt lakes and difficult country. Becoming ill and despairing of accomplishing the trip to Joanna Spring, they retraced their steps to Separation Well. From there, they struggled north following the tracks of the main party to about 16 miles south-west of Joanna Spring. They became exhausted, lost their two remaining camels (one was abandoned previously) and perished on or about 21 November 1896.

Calytrix—family Myrtaceae, evergreen trees or shrubs, bearing essential oils. Flowers solitary (apparently), or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’. Endemic to north and east Australia, south-west Australia and Central Australia.

CAMBA—Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Migratory Birds and their Environment.

Cambridge Plateau—a World Heritage-listed rainforest, contained by the Richmond Range National Park. These internationally significant rainforests have an outstanding diversity of native plants and animals, including many rare and threatened species. One local spotted gum, related to the more common form of spotted gum of the New South Wales east coast, is found only in a small area on the range.

came in by the back door—entered into by using clandestine or underhanded tactics.

came out like a shower of shit—very fast.

came over on the boat with Noah—pertaining to a very old person or thing.

camel driver—1. a person who rides or drives a camel (see Afghan cameleers). 2. an unskilled horse jockey.

camel poison—(see: Cooktown ironwood).

cameleer—a person who rides or drives a camel (see Afghan camaleers).

camels—were introduced into Australia and used for the development of the Australian interior. The first introduction in any numbers was made in 1860 when the Victorian Government imported 24 camels from India for the use in the tragic Burke and Wills expedition. The camels used in the the Burke and Wills expedition of 1860-1 were accompanied by an Afghan cameleer, Dost Mahomet, to Camp 65. In 1866 more camels and their drivers were brought to South Australia. These men were the first of many Afghan cameleers who later worked in large areas of the very dry, semi-desert of the Australian interior. Maree became a centre from which goods were dispersed to many distant parts. In 1880 Sub Inspector B C Besley suggested that the police in the north should use camels for the collection of statistics and census forms. His suggestion was taken up and camels were from then on used by all police in the north for all kinds of work. The Marree police used camels to patrol the outback until 1949. When the camels—who were brought to Australia because they could carry loads of up to 600 pounds over long distances with little food or water over almost any terrain—had outlived their usefulness, they became a pest. Most were shot when found on common land or without a registration disk, and so hundreds were shot by the police—to the delight of the pastoralists. However, some survived and herds of camels can be seen when crossing the interior.

Cameron Corner—the outback junction of Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia, it was named after the man who surveyed the Queensland/New South Wales border in 1880. The Dog Fence runs through Cameron Corner, access at this point being through a gate which should be kept shut at all times. At nearly 6000km, running from the Great Australian Bight in South Australia to the Great Dividing Range north- west of Brisbane, it is the longest fence in the world. Parts of it were built at the turn of the century in an unsuccessful attempt to stop the rabbits. These sections were joined together in a continuous structure in the 1940s to protect the semiarid cattle country to the north and sheep country to the west from dingos.

Camfield Beds—a narrow, fossil-bearing bed of about 50km length, noted for its marsupial megafauna. One of three known such fossil sites in the Northern Territory. Located on Camfield Station.

Camooweal Caves National Park—elaborate cave systems abound in this 13,000ha park just south-east of Camooweal, Queensland. Access to the park is difficult during the best of times and should only be attempted during the dry season and with a 4WD vehicle. The park itself is mainly flat, dry spinifex country with some eucalypt woodland in the northern section. Camooweal Caves is a large cave system that is growing larger each year with the soluble dolomite being continually eroded by the flooding during the wet season. The largest cave is the Great Nowranie—at 290m long and 70m high it is also one of the easiest to access. As the area is extremely isolated, only experienced cavers should attempt these caves and only in the dry season. Please be aware that the caves are home to many bats species, including the ghost bat. Owls also call the caves home. A grazing lease covers the area where the caves are located, so please do not disturb cattle or interfere with bore holes. Camping permits are required from the Ranger.

camp—effeminately homosexual: e.g., He's as camp as a row of tents.

camp as a row of tents—very obviously homosexual.

camp it up—1. to engage in cross-dressing; to dress in drag. 2. behave in a flamboyant or outrageous manner.

camp oven—a metal pot with a heavy lid, used for baking over an open fire; Australian equivalent of the dutch oven.

camp pie—canned meat; "potted meat" to the British, and tinned dog to the 19th century gold miners.

campdrafting—the sport of campdrafting has its origins in the early days of the Australian stockman, and is believed to have begun in rural Queensland in the early part of the twentieth century. When drovers needed to select individual cattle from a mob to drive them to a separate holding area, the stockman would "cut out" the beast from the mob. This was achieved through the skills of the horse and rider to block the attempts of the beast to follow his natural instincts in returning to the mob. This was usually done when large mobs of cattle were mustered together and held by a team of horsemen on the open plain, while the nominated rider did the "cutting out". Over time, stockmen developed competitions based around this activity, which have evolved into the uniquely Australian sport as we know it today. The prestige associated with a win in a campdraft of several hundred competitors is invaluable to the owner of the horse, as the winning horse is ranked amongst the finest stock horses in the country.

can't abide—cannot tolerate.

can't come at (something)—unwillingness to do or to participate or become involved in a particular activity: e.g., I've tried but I simply can't come at eating raw oysters.

can't find the handle—(Australian Rules football) can't pick up the ball.

can't see for looking—pertaining to the inability to see the obvious.

can't take a trick—to be habitually unlucky.

can't wear it (someone/something)—can't abide, tolerate or put up with: e.g., He came home drunk so often that I couldn't wear it any more, so I left him.

canaries—(hist.) convicts, partly because they were in essence encaged, if not actually behind bars, but also because their uniforms, when they had them, were yellow.

Canberra—the capital city; situated within the Australian Capital Territory, which is itself contained by New South Wales. It's thought the name is based on an Aboriginal name for the area, Kamberra or Kambery ('meeting place'). Subsequent to Federation in 1901, the search for a suitable site on which to build the Australian Capital Territory was launched, with a view to building an entirely pre-planned "garden city". This was designed by American landscape architect Walter Burley Griffin, winner of an international contest. An artificial lake bearing his name forms the hub of the city, from which the residential and commercial streets radiate. The parliamentary triangle of buildings is located on Capital Hill, overlooking the surrounding area, most of which is preserved as national parks.

Canberra Coat of Arms—consists of a black and white swan supporting a shield. The shield includes a medieval castle and a crossed Sword of Justice and mace. Beneath the castle is a rose. Above the shield are a gate, a crown and a gum tree. The mace is a symbol of parliament, the black and white swans represent the Aboriginal and European races, and the rose is the Rose of York, for the De of York who declared Canberra the Seat of Government in 1927. The motto is Pro Rege, Lege et Grege—"For the Queen, the Law and the People.

candy car—Victorian police highway patrol car; from the yellow and white stripes on the cars, which superficially resemble a particular candy bar wrapper.

cane barracks—living quarters for sugar cane cutters.

cane cocky—the proprietor of a sugar cane farm.

cane land—land on which sugar cane is farmed.

cane season—the sugar cane-harvesting period (June to December), when sugar content is at its highest.

cane toadBufo marinus, introduced to control a beetle which feeds on sugarcane crops, the cane toad has thrived in Queensland’s tropical and subtropical climate. It can now be found in much of Queensland and continues to spread into New South Wales and the Northern Territory. This pest’s impact has been far-reaching, with the invasion of cane toads into Queensland thought to be an important factor in the decline of many native animals. In 1935, cane toads from Hawaii were released into far north Queensland cane fields in an effort to control grey-back beetles that were devastating the sugarcane industry. Within six months of their release, the cane toad population burgeoned from the initial 101 toads released to 60,000 toads. Populations of the cane beetles the toad was intended to control have not been affected, and are now being controlled with insecticidal sprays. Ugly and leathery-brown, the cane toad is one of Queensland’s best-known feral animals. 2. a player for the Queensland state team in Rugby League State of Origin football competition.

canegrassZygochloa paradoxa, grows on desert sandhills and stabilises the loose sand on crests. Canegrass has few and reduced leaves to minimise water loss. For photosynthesis it depends mainly on its green, moisture-retaining stems, which also collect and channel water to the roots. Canegrass flowers quickly after rain and can root from basal stems, enabling it to slowly move with drifting sand.

Cania Gorge National Park—a huge sandstone belt stretches right through the middle of Queensland, and Cania Gorge is part of this massive belt. 70 metre high sandstone cliffs, rainforest-covered gullies, caves and open eucalypt forest typify this area of Queensland. The park covers over 3000ha and is a haven for native animals in the area. Walking tracks are easy to get to and provide magnificent views of the sandstone cliffs and their features, such as Dripping Rock, a magnificent natural fernery, and the Overhang. Walks to Dragon Cave and Bloodwood Cave are also available and easy to get to. Platypus, kangaroo, bettongs, wallabies, koala, and many bird species call the park home. King orchids and elk horns abound in certain areas quite close to the picnic areas. Other features of the park include the old gold mines. For the more adventurous walkers there are still old mining batteries, mullock heaps and storage sheds to investigate. Gold fossicking is not permitted in national parks.

caning—1. a beating; physical attack. 2. harsh rebuff or verbal abuse. 3. rough treatment; abuse. 4. a sound defeat: e.g., Our team copped a caning in the finals. (equivalent of American 'took a hiding'.)

Canning Basin—an arid sedimentary basin in north-western Western Australia. Occupying a largely unexplored area of about 400,000sq km, it extends south from the Fitzroy River to the De Grey River and from the coast southeast almost to 128° E longitude. The basin underlies the western section of the Great Sandy Desert. Also called Desert Artesian Basin.

Canning Stock Route—first surveyed in 1906 by Albert Canning, the Canning Stock Route was established to allow the pioneer cattlemen of the very isolated Kimberly region of north West Australia to get their cattle to the meat-hungry south, particularly the new gold rush area around Kalgoolie. Nearly a century ago, this was a daunting trip adventure across four of Australia's most remote and dry deserts. Still one of the toughest and remote tracks in the world, it is now host to outback adventure tours by 4WD or motorcycle.

Cannon Hill—(originally all part of Flagstaff Hill); there is a marker erected here by the Portuguese community of Victoria to indicate the furthermost point that the Portuguese explorers may have reached in Bass Strait in the sixteenth century (conjecture only). Cannon Hill was so named because fortifications were put here in 1867: two of the cannons from here were moved to the new fort on Flagstaff Hill in 1887. When the fort on Flagstaff Hill was closed, the guns were put back on Cannon Hill by the City Council in 1910.

cannonball run—an illegal and unauthorised car race through part of a country.

canoodle—indulge in sexual fondling and petting.

canopy—the highest vegetation layer of a plant community, usually formed by the crowns of the trees.

Canton Lead—Australia's richest shallow alluvial goldfield. The strike was made as a result of racial strife on the Victorian goldfields. Due to anti-Asian sentiment, the state government, in 1855, placed a £20 poll tax on every Chinese person entering Victorian ports. Ships from China began landing at South Australia, leaving the immigrants a walk of 500 km or more to the Victorian goldfields. So it came about that one party of 700 Chinese miners came to rest on the future townsite while en route to Clunes. One member discovered alluvial gold in a stream, and the Canton Lead was established. This find marked the beginning of the Ararat goldfield, which grew to a population of more than 20,000 in a matter of weeks. With the assistance of the Chinese Protector, the Chinese miners survived violent attempts from whites to oust them from their claims. 93kg of gold were shipped out in the first three weeks and 3 tons were officially escorted from town in the first three months. European miners retaliated by burning their tents and chasing them from the ground.

Cape Arid National Park—a large (279,832ha) and exceptionally scenic park. With more than 160 bird species, it is an important park for the conservation of birds in Western Australia, and harbours a number of restricted and threatened species, as well as some interesting inland birds.  As well as including beaches and the Thomas River and estuary, it also includes south-western and more arid vegetation types, providing a broad array of bird habitats. Cape Arid National Park, therefore, includes a diverse array of bird species. It is the eastern limit of distribution in Western Australia for ten species, including the ground parrot, scarlet robin, western spinebill and red-eared firetail. Several species that prefer drier country are found only in the northern part of the park, including the mulga parrot and pied butcherbird. At least two species have moved into the park in the last 40 years. The elegant parrot moved into the Esperance district in 1959, following clearing of vegetation for farms. This species and the crested pigeon, which arrived in about 1980, both like very open woodland or parkland situations. At Cape Arid, they are most likely to be seen along the boundary with the farmland, particularly on Merivale Road.

Cape Arnhem Peninsula—broad sandy beaches, extensive dune fields, the edge of an extensive lateritic plateau and limited areas of exposed granite outcrops, bounded by mangrove-fringed tidal inlets. The Quaternary dune system, a dominant landscape feature of the peninsula area of Manydjarrarrnga-Wanuwuy (the Aboriginal name), is wind formed in origin and rises to approximately 60m in height in places. A raised plateau of lateritic rock, which is an erosional remnant of an almost continuous, lower Cretaceous cover known as the Mullaman beds, dominates the southern and western perimeters of the area. Low, uniform tablelands of this origin are a common feature of the north-western Australian landscape and cover a large percentage of the Arnhem Land surface. No other reserves are located within 200km of Cape Arnhem Peninsula, and the occurrence there of a broad range coastal and sub-coastal vegetation render the area representative of much of coastal Arnhem Land. Compared with the recent loss of wildlife in most areas in Australia, the wildlife of Cape Arnhem specifically and north-eastern Arnhem Land generally is notable for its apparent intactness, as most of northeastern Arnhem Land has been little modified by European influence. The coastal area of north-eastern Arnhem Land, including Manydjarrarrnga-Wanuwuy, provides feeding habitat and nesting sites for several threatened species of marine turtles.

Cape Banks—a windswept island in the Bass Strait. Flat or undulating lowlands and contrasting mountainous granite outcrops dominate the landscape of this area. Sandy beaches and rocky headlands form the coastline, backed by dune systems and wetlands in the east. Mountains rise 500—600 metres above sea level. Vegetation of the island is dominated by the extensive heathland, which is favoured by the frequent fires. The regularity of burning has also favoured the brush wallaby. Other animals of the area are mainly associated with the heath vegetation. The island is subject to an Aboriginal land claim.

Cape Barren—a hilly, 25km-long island standing hard against the Roaring Forties in eastern Bass Strait. Flat or undulating lowlands and contrasting mountainous granite outcrops dominate the landscape of this area. Sand beaches and rocky headlands form the coastline, backed by dune systems and wetlands in the east. Mountains rise 500 to 600 metres above sea level. The island's vegetation is dominated by extensive heathland, which is favoured by the frequent fires. Tasmanian Aborigines survived there, in small numbers, through the 19th and 20th centuries. Much of the area is now privately owned grazing leasehold land.

Cape Barren gooseCereopsis novaehollandiae, a handsome bird about the same size as a domestic goose. Its plumage is pale grey, with black markings near the tips of its wing feathers and tail. It has pink legs and black feet. Its most striking feature is the bright, greenish yellow cere on its short, black bill. Cape Barren geese live mostly on small, windswept and generally uninhabited offshore islands, but venture to adjacent mainland farming areas in search of food in summer. Their ability to drink salt or brackish water allows numbers of geese to remain on offshore islands all year round. They are one of the rarest of the world's geese. Cape Barren geese are found along the southern coast of Australia from the islands of the Recherche Archipelago in Western Australia, Kangaroo Island and the Sir Joseph Banks Islands of South Australia, the Victorian coastal islands around Wilson's Promontory, and the islands of Bass Strait, including the Hogan, Kent, Curtis and Furneaux Groups. These geese lay eggs in nests in the tussocks found in the open grassland areas in which they live. Each pair of geese establishes a territory in autumn, prepares a nest site and defends it noisily and determinedly against other geese.

Cape Barren Island Reserve—created in 1881 for subdivision into homestead and agricultural blocks. Tasmanian Aborigines inhabiting the island trace back to the early 19th century, when European sealers abducted Aboriginal women to become wives and workers. Mutton-birding replaced sealing as the main economic activity in the 1850s and the community led a lifestyle based on a mix of both Aboriginal and European ways. After 1935, Aboriginal children were taken from Cape Barren Island and surrounding islands under the Infants Welfare Act 1935 and subsequent child welfare legislation. From the 1940s to the 1970s, unemployment and the state government policy of assimilation drove many people from Cape Barren and other islands in Bass Strait.

Cape Barren Island Reserve Act 1912—provided for ‘the subdivision of the Cape Barren Island Reserve and for occupation of a portion thereof by the descendants of Aboriginal natives. Residents of the reserve were required to reside continuously in their houses for a minimum of six months each year. Males were named in a schedule, and their widows and descendants could make application for licences to occupy land free of rent. Licences could be bequeathed to a widow or descendants, but a licensed widow who married a non-Aboriginal had her license, and all rights attendant to it, revoked. Persons over 21 years who were not licensed occupiers or lessees could be removed from the reserve. ‘In order to encourage the settlement of the half-castes in other parts of Tasmania outside the Reserve’ an applicant could be granted a licence to occupy Crown land elsewhere in Tasmania. The Act also provided for regulations to be made for the control of residents upon the reserve. The 1912 Act was repealed by the Cape Barren Island Reserve Act 1945.

Cape Barren Island Reserve Act 1945—required islanders to develop and cultivate land on Cape Barren Island within 5 years of the law’s enactment, otherwise the land would revert to the Crown. In addition to substantial improvements such as fencing and cultivation of the land, the lessor, his wife and family were all required to reside on it for at least nine months per year. A lessee could bequeath his lease to a member of his family, which comprised only his wife and children, if he was living on the reserve at the time of death. Any person over the age of 21 who was is not a lessee, or the son of a lessee who was permanently employed by and receiving wages from a lessee, was subject to removal from the reserve. This Act expired in 1951.

Cape Bedford Mission—a Lutheran mission north of Cooktown, Queensland, it was later moved to Hope Valley. Later again, it was renamed Hope Vale Mission.

Cape bluebellWahlenbergia capensis, a slender, erect annual up to 50cm tall. The stems and leaves are shortly-hairy and the leaves have wavy, toothed margins. Each flowering stem is terminated by a single cup-shaped flower up to 2cm across, bluish-green with a dark blue centre, appearing in spring. Widespread on roadsides, in woodlands and heaths on sandy soils and occasionally in gardens, from Geraldton to Ravensthorpe. Native to the Cape Province, South Africa.

Cape Bridgewater—with its rugged and desolate yet spectacular natural features, the Cape offers visitors unique sights and activities. Situated about 20km west of Portland, Cape Bridgewater can be enjoyed for its wonderful walks and sightseeing, including a colony of 650 fur seals, the mainland's largest. There are walks that take you around the cape to a viewing platform where you can observe the colony's antics. Located in Victoria.

Cape Byron State Recreation Area—a 47ha park located at mainland Australia's most easterly point. As well as being of significance to the local Arakwal people, this area includes a cliff-top walking track that offers magnificent views of the ocean to the east and inland to the north coast hinterland. Here you can stroll through the rare coastal rainforest and if it's the right time of year (June/July or September/ October) you might even spot a whale or two. In October 2001 under an indigenous land use agreement the park became part of the Arakwal National Park Reserve.

Cape Colony—a port of call for English sailors, situated on the southernmost tip of South Africa: this is where Captain James Cook replenished his supplies, when exploring for Australia. The history of the Cape Colony starts in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town and the establishment of a supply camp for the Dutch East India Company. In 1795 the British seized Cape Colony from the French, who were allies of the Dutch against British interest in the spice trade. After battles with the Zulus, British forces withdrew and Napoleon's Dutch allies seized the defenceless Cape Colony. In 1806 Britain once again seized Cape Colony, and it remained under British rule until the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, when it became known as the Cape Province.

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