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Australia Decoded
'I-2'


Inland Taipan

Inland Taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus)



Indigenous land council—a statutory, representative body representing Aboriginal people in their Indigenous region. With all the Indigenous land councils responsibilities include: protection of the traditional Aboriginal landowners' interests in their land, including assistance with land claims and negotiating on their behalf; and protection of sacred sites in the central area.

Indigenous Land Fund—a self-sustaining capital fund established in 1995 in conjunction with the Indigenous Land Corporation. The corporation administers the fund to assist Indigenous people in buying and managing land. For the first ten years, $1.46 billion will be placed into the Land Fund by the federal government through fixed annual allocations. Approximately two-thirds will be invested to build the capital base and to secure an ongoing source of funds. The other third will be administered by the corporation for land purchases and land management. Since June 2004, the corporation has continued to assist Indigenous people by operating off the interest earned by the Land Fund. The Land Fund itself, however, remains the property of the Commonwealth.

Indigenous Land Use Agreement—(ILUA)—a voluntary agreement between a native title group and others about the use and management of land and waters. An ILUA can be made separately from the formal native title process, but may also be a step towards, or part of, native title determinations, There are three different types of ILUAs: Body corporate agreements: these are restricted to areas where one or more registered native title bodies corporate hold native title over the entire area subject to an agreement. Such bodies corporate may make agreements with any other person. Area agreements: these may be applicable in situations where there is no native title body corporate for the whole area. Alternative procedure agreements: these may apply in any situation where there is no native title body corporate for the whole area, although there must be a Native Title Representative Body (NTRB) or body corporate for the area. In addition to the wide range of matters that may be covered by the other types of ILUAs, an alternative procedure agreement may provide a framework for other agreements about native title rights and interests, but, because it is not a requirement that native title-holders are parties to such an agreement, cannot provide for the extinguishment of native title. Indigenous Land Use Agreements are included as provisions in the 1998 amendments to the Native Title Act 1993.

Indigenous languages—in 1996 about 48,200 people spoke an Indigenous language at home. Most speakers lived in the more remote central and northern regions of Australia. At the time of the first European settlement, more than 500 dialects may have been spoken by the indigenous population. These dialects made up about 250 distinct languages (in terms of groupings with similar grammar and vocabulary). The subsequent expansion of Europeans into the continent resulted in the loss of many languages and dialects, as many speakers died and others shifted to speaking other indigenous languages, English or Creoles. The importance of the maintenance of the remaining indigenous languages was affirmed in Australia's language policy, formulated in the 1980s. This policy recognised the central importance of indigenous languages in conveying traditional knowledge and expressing the world view of the people who speak them. Recording languages no longer in daily use and regaining knowledge of languages of the past is also a cultural priority of indigenous Australians. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission has funded community-initiated programs aimed at the maintenance, retrieval and revival of indigenous languages, and improving awareness and appreciation of them in the wider community.

Indigenous people—(see: Aboriginal people).

Indigenous Protected Area—(IPA) national parks, nature reserves and marine parks that are entrusted to, or jointly managed by, the traditional owners of an area. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) defines a protected area as: "An area of land or sea specially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity and associated cultural resources and management through legal and/or other effective means."

Indigenous Protected Areas Program—a government program through which traditional landowners are supported in the management of their lands, for the protection of natural and cultural features, in accordance with internationally recognised standards and guidelines. The Indigenous Protected Areas Program is part of the National Reserve System Program, which aims to establish a network of protected areas that includes a representative sample of all types of ecosystems across the country. The Indigenous Protected Areas Program and National Reserve System Program are part of the Australian Government's Natural Heritage Trust.

Indinji—one of three main tribes that lived in Far North Queensland and had come in from the tropical rainforests to live on missions in the Central Desert region, particularly the Warburton Mission. The Indindji had previously inhabited the eastern slopes of the Atherton Tableland, from Lake Barrine south to Gordonvale.

individual contract—a legally binding agreement between employer and employee, contracted without union intervention. Originally used when the employee concerned was not covered by an award (e.g. managers, supervisors, etc), such contracts are now known as Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs). The individual contract has played an increasing role under the Howard Government.

Indonesian Throughflow—(ITF) the Pacific to Indian Ocean through-flow, as it is referred to in climate research. The ITF current has major effects on climate and marine ecosystems in northern Australia. The Indonesian Throughflow current transports genetic material southwards from the biologically diverse reef systems of the Philippines and Indonesia. As initial recipients in Australian waters of this transported material, the reefs and shoals of the North West Shelf play a primary role in the maintenance of biodiversity in reef systems further to the south.

industrial action—any action taken by a party in order to support its claims in relation to conditions of employment. The Workplace Relations Act 1996 allows limited rights of industrial action to parties negotiating a certified agreement. 'Protected industrial action' is the term used for a legal strike in Australia. Under the law, employees cannot be disadvantaged for being part of a protected action.

Industrial and Reformatory Schools Act, 1865—provided for the establishment of both public and private ‘industrial schools’. Vagrant and destitute children could be ordered to live in such institutions, at the discretion of justices, until the age of eighteen or apprenticeship. In an amending Act (34 Vic No IV) of 1870 it was provided that boys under six committed to an industrial school might be detained in a female industrial school until seven years of age, then removed to a boys’ school. Commonly referred to as the Reformatories Act.

industrial award—a determination by an industrial tribunal establishing levels of pay and conditions of employment for workers in a specified industry, occupation, or enterprise.

industrial dispute—a disagreement between employers and workers. Industrial disputes comprise strikes, which are a withdrawal from work by a group of employees; and lockouts, which are a refusal by an employer or group of employers to permit some or all of their employees to work. Some common subjects for industrial disputes are wages and conditions, occupational health and safety, unfair dismissals or environmental issues. South Australia's Act to Facilitate the Settlement of Industrial Disputes established a statutory authority, the model for all later arbitration acts in Australia. The South Australian Act was modelled on Reeves' New Zealand Act, which in turn was based on the Bill prepared by Charles Cameron Kingston in South Australia in 1890.

Industrial Division of the Federal Court—(1977—1993) a regulatory body that took over the judicial powers of the Commonwealth Industrial Court in 1977. Under the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993, these powers were transferred to a specialist labour court, the Industrial Relations Court of Australia.

industrial estate—an area of land developed for the siting of industrial enterprises; industrial park.

industrial matter—anything that affects the relationship between the employer and the employee at work.

industrial relations—the relationships between employees, working groups, unions, managers, employers and employer associations, and the intervention into these relationships by government. The Commonwealth has established an institutional framework for the regulation of industrial relations coming within the federal jurisdiction. Historically, the Commonwealth has done this primarily under the conciliation and arbitration power (s51(xxxv)) of the Constitution. The residue of powers resides with the states, all of which have state systems of industrial relations. The Commonwealth does not have the power to legislate directly on such industrial relations matters as wages and conditions of employment.

Industrial Relations Act 1988—(AIR Act) repealed and replaced the Conciliation and Arbitration Act. The new Act also revised the provisions of the old Act, and introduced a number of changes to federal industrial arrangements. While maintaining most of its predecessor's substance, the establishment of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC) to replace the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission was a significant change. The system remained underpinned by an award system intended to protect minimum pay scales. In 1993, the Industrial Relations Act was amended in the Industrial Relations Reform Act; in 1996, it was repealed by the Workplace Relations Act.

Industrial Relations Commission—deals the functions of setting award wages, and the terms and conditions of employment. Industrial tribunals have been established by the Commonwealth and all State governments except for Victoria to deal with industrial relations matters.

Industrial Relations Court of Australia—(1994- 1997) a regulatory body operated as a superior court of law and equity. The IRCA was established by the Australian Parliament under the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993, and commenced operations on 30 March 1994. The Court exercised the industrial relations jurisdiction previously held by the Federal Court, which included interpretation and enforcement of awards and certified agreements, various matters relating to registered organisations, and reference of questions of law from AIRC/Registrars, etc. The court had original jurisdiction for applications made, actions brought or prosecutions under the Reform Act, as well as (limited) appeals from state and territory courts. As a consequence of the Workplace Relations Act of 1996, the court's jurisdiction has been transferred to other courts, mainly the Federal Court of Australia. Despite the transfer of jurisdiction, the Industrial Relations Court of Australia continues to exist at law until the last of its judges resigns or retires from office.

Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993 (Cth)—a legislative overhaul of the award wage system. The Reform Act amended the Industrial Relations Act 1988 in an attempt to relate rates of pay to the productivity of employees. It allowed collective bargaining above the award yet it restricted the Industrial Relations Commission (IRC) from addressing the merits of the agreement. The Reform Act entrenched the practice of enterprise by stripping the IRC of its power to amend or reject industrial agreements, while allowing for non-union agreements. The parties were allowed to negotiate away award conditions so long as they met a 'no disadvantage test'. Prior to this Act, award conditions had not been negotiable. The Reform Act also established the Industrial Relations Court of Australia (IRCA). The constitutional underpinning of the Reform Act was a major change in itself: whereas previously there were only a small number of provisions in the Act based on the external affairs and corporations powers of the Constitution, significant parts of the new Reform Act had their jurisdictional basis in these powers.

Industrial Relations Tribunal—a body established by the Commonwealth government under the Workplace Relations Act 1996 for the management of industrial relations. It is accepted and applied to by all state governments except Victoria to deal with industrial relations matters, including: award wage rates; conditions of employment; health and safety standards; pensions and superannuation; and the hearing and deciding of cases in dispute (e.g., seeking redress against unfair dismissal). The policy-makers of this tribunal have concentrated on enterprise-level labour relations and on direct relations between the employer and the employee. This has brought about a change in the role of the tribunal, which now acts as a facilitator to an increasing extent. Labour relations are being conducted through workplace agreements, both collective and individual. This process of decentralisation and individualisation is strongly supported by employers.

industrial tribunal—a tribunal set up for industrial relations purposes. In Australia, the industrial tribunal had its origins in the major strikes of the 1890s. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, all states of the newly formed federal Commonwealth of Australia had established industrial tribunals, except for Victoria, to deal with industrial relations matters.

Infants Welfare Act 1935—'An Act to consolidate and amend the Law relating to Welfare of Children and the Protection of Infant Life'. A child may be apprehended as neglected and detained in a receiving home or other specified place to be taken before a children's court. The court may commit a neglected or uncontrollable child to the care of the Social Services Department or to an institution. Where a child is charged with being neglected or uncontrollable, the parents have a right to be heard, but if the parents do not appear, the court can hear the matter without them. A child may also be admitted to the care of the director on the application of his/her parent or near relative or any person of good repute to be dealt with in the same way as a neglected or uncontrollable child. The Director of Social Services is the guardian of every child of the State and may place a child in a receiving home or in an institution; board-out, apprentice or place the child in service; or place the child in the custody of a suitable person. It is an offence to wilfully ill-treat, neglect, abandon or expose a child; communicate with a child in an institution; or, being a near relative liable to maintain a child, to desert the child or leave the child without adequate means of support. Repealed by the Child Welfare Act 1960.

informal vote—a vote that is not counted because the ballot paper has not been completed according to electoral law.

infra dig—beneath one's dignity.

Iningai—Aboriginal tribe of the Lake Eyre region of Queensland.

Injinoo—church influence: Anglican. Injinoo is an Aboriginal community established by the remains of several semi-nomadic family tribes occupying the last 200km of Cape York Peninsula. Coming together around the turn of the century and led by a Wuthathi man, Allelic Whitesand, they settled at the mouth of Cowal Creek or Small River, now known as Injinoo. Although self-sufficient, through fishing and gardening, the community requested assistance from the Anglican Church to establish a mission and a school. Government officials allowed the community to function through an elected Council. After the Second World War, which saw a considerable military presence in the area, many Torres Strait Islanders began moving into Injinoo. Settlements were subsequently built at Bamaga, New Mapoon and Umagico to relocate evicted people from this and other areas of the Cape. In 1948, a reserve was created with control of the area having been taken over by the Queensland Department of Native Affairs.

inked—drunk; intoxicated; inebriated.

Inland—(the...) the interior of Australia.

inland forest batVespadelus baverstocki, one of the smallest mammal species in Australia, if not the world. It weighs between 3-5 grams, and is found in south-western parts of the Desert Uplands. It can consume 1-1.5 times its body weight in insects per night.

inland paperbark—(see: swamp paperbark).

inland taipanOxyuranus microlepidotus has the most potent venom of any land snake on earth but it is usually quite shy and has a placid disposition. Lives in Australia in warm-temperate to tropical-arid to semi-arid flood plains and associated adjoining land, especially near creeks. The inland taipan shelters in rat burrows (probably having eaten the original owners), in deep soil cracks and sink holes (gilgais), and sometimes in rock crevices and deep fissures where outcrops occur near flood plains. It feeds on small- to medium-sized mammals—the house mouse, the kultarr and other small dasyurids; but mainly on rodents like the long-haired rat, which is usually cornered in a burrow or soil crack and then bitten several times in rapid succession without releasing the grip. The extremely potent venom acts so quickly that the snake can hold the prey until it succumbs without itself suffering injury; sometimes it also clamps the prey in a bend of the body. In times of plenty, the inland taipan can become quite fat; during prolonged drought, it can starve and become remarkably thin. It is usually most active on the surface in the early half of the morning when it basks and forages in and near soil cracks at ground level. In cooler weather, it is also active in the afternoon; in hot weather it becomes nocturnal.

Innaminka—a jointly proclaimed regional reserve, an active petroleum extraction zone and cattle station. Proclaimed a township in 1890, Innaminka is located 340km from Tibooburra, near the junction of the Strezlecki, Cordillo and Nappa Merrie tracks on Cooper Creek. In 1929 the Elizabeth Symon Nursing Home was opened by the Australian Inland Mission to provide medical services to the people of inland areas. Staffed by two nurses, radio contact was maintained with the Royal Flying Doctors at Cloncurry, Queensland, through a pedal-operated radio. In 1994 the Elizabeth Symon Nursing Home was reconstructed with funds raised by the Australian Geographic Society. The home now serves as an information centre for the surrounding Innaminka Regional Reserve. The 20,000ha Coongie Conservation Zone is excluded from the much larger jointly-proclaimed regional reserve.

innings—opportunity or turn at doing something; career, position: e.g., He's had a good innings in politics and now feels it's time to retire.

Innisfail—positioned in the heart of the Cassowary Coast and is situated 88km south of Cairns and 260km north of Townsville. The original inhabitants of this region were the five societies of the Mamu people, following migratory lifestyles in the rainforest, and moving along the rivers in stringybark canoes. The first European incursion came in 1872. Survivors of the shipwrecked Maria arrived on the coast near the Johnstone River. Settlement, however, with its Asian and Pacific components, began late in the region, partly because of Aboriginal resistance. The Edmund Kennedy exploration of 1848 revealed impenetrable rainforests, confining European economic enterprises to Pacific coastal waters, mostly to pearling and trepang collection. Innisfail (called Geraldton until 1911) was founded in 1880 by Thomas H. Fitzgerald who took up a 10,000ha land grant funded by the Catholic Bishop of Brisbane and All Hallows' Sisters of Mercy. With 10 Irish and 35 South Sea Islanders as workers, he began planting sugar cane in the cleared rainforest lands. The introduction of the sugar industry opened a new economic era in the region. However, this region today is Australia's largest producer of bananas, rivalling sugar as an income earner. Tea, papaws and exotic tropical fruits also are grown. A large prawn and reef fishing fleet boosts the economy. As well, the Innisfail region is being recognised as one of the best recreational fishing areas—from chasing the elusive barramundi in the estuaries to game and reef fishing on the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent island.

innocent as a cat in a goldfish bowl—guilty; not innocent at all.

Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation Australia—(IBRA) provides the bioregional planning framework for developing the National Reserve System. A Biogeographic Region is a land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form across the landscape. The biogeographic regions of the IBRA are based on factors associated with climate, lithology, geology, landforms and vegetation. Many National Land and Water Resources Audit (NLWRA ) projects are using the IBRA regions for analyses, assessment and reporting purposes. Australia's Rangelands Assessment Project has developed detailed descriptions of the IBRA version 5.1 regions. The IBRA is comprised of 85 regions that span the Australian mainland and Tasmania.

International Council on Monuments and Sites—(ICOMOS), a non-governmental organization founded in 1965 to promote the doctrine and the techniques of conservation. ICOMOS provides the World Heritage Committee with evaluations of properties with cultural values proposed for inscription on the World Heritage List, as well as with comparative studies, technical assistance and reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties.

International Rock Art Research Team—(IRART) an international team of scientists and photographers conducting some of the most systematic research ever undertaken on Western Australia's Bradshaw rock paintings. In an effort to further understand aspects of the social culture and physical environment that accompanied the creation of these art forms, IRART has been working to collect data on and provide analysis of the Bradshaw rock art system since 1998. IRART believes that the Bradshaws can provide unprecedented insight into the social structures, belief systems and material culture of the Ice Age hunter-gatherers previously inhabiting the Kimberley region.

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources—(IUCN) is a unique union. Its members from some 140 countries include 77 States, 114 government agencies, and 800-plus NGOs. More than 10,000 internationally-recognised scientists and experts from more than 180 countries volunteer their services to its six global commissions. Its 1000 staff members in offices around the world are working on some 500 projects. For more than 50 years this ‘Green Web’ of partnerships has generated environmental conventions, global standards, scientific knowledge and innovative leadership.“IUCN builds bridges between governments and NGOs, science and society, local action and global policy. It is truly a world force for environmental governance.

Invasion Day—The 26th of January is officially Australia Day, marking the day that Australia was officially colonised by the British. The local Indigenous population didn't get what could be termed, by any stretch of the imagination, any consideration in the matter. In their view, this day is regarded more as a day of mourning, often termed 'Invasion Day'.

Inverloch—a seaside village on the Bunurong Coast that was one of Victoria's earliest ports. The rocky coastline, which stretches from San Remo to Inverloch, has been scientifically dated at approximately 115—120 million years old and contains the remains of ancient rivers that once flowed in this area. Monash University, in conjunction with the Museum of Victoria, conducts annual excavations on the coast of Victoria near Inverloch. The Flat Rock site was discovered in 1991 and has yielded more than 6000 bones and teeth of small dinosaurs, mammals, birds, turtles and fish. Ancient middens discovered in the area are testimony to the Bunurong people who once occupied this stretch of the coast. The first white settler in the district was Samuel Anderson, who discovered the inlet's existence while exploring the coast, after he had settled at Bass River in 1835. The area was opened for selection in the 1870s. Inverloch became a port for the shipment to Melbourne of the black coal that was once mined at nearby Wonthaggi. Located on the Anderson Inlet and near the Flat Rock site in Victoria.

invertebrate—person of little strength of character; weak-willed; spineless.

inverted commas—apostrophes, i.e. ' '.

inverted snob—reverse snob.

invite—invitation: e.g., Did you get an invite to the party?

iosperm—any flowering plant. Their sexual dimorphism gave these plants a greater diversity than was possible with the ferns, cycads and palm that had preceded them. Starting from West Gondwana in what is now western Africa and eastern South America, the flowering plants spread across the supercontinent just as it was beginning to break apart at the beginning of the Cretaceous period. Of the 19 angiosperm families described as 'primitive', 13 occur in the Wet Tropics of Australia.

IPA—Indigenous Protected Area.

Ipswich—a city located on the Bremer River, 40 kilometres west of Brisbane. The Yagara Aborigines occupied the area before European settlement, which began with the exploration of the Bremer River in 1826 by Captain Patrick Logan, the commandant of the convict settlement at Brisbane. Calcareous hummocks were discovered on the Bremer, a lime kiln was built and convicts were stationed there in 1827. The burnt lime was transported to the Moreton Bay settlement by convict-built whaleboats, for use in the construction of many early Brisbane buildings. In the 1840s, Ipswich became the main river port for the newly established sheep stations on the Darling Downs. The steamer Experiment began running between Brisbane and Ipswich in 1846 and was the first of a considerable fleet of river vessels. The first railway built in Queensland was opened between Ipswich and Grandchester in 1865, and the line to Brisbane was opened in 1876. Ipswich became the junction for lines from the west via Toowoomba, and from the agricultural areas to the north and south. For a time, townspeople and graziers alike hoped that it would become the capital port on the river. However, after Queensland's separation from New South Wales, Brisbane leapt ahead and became the new state's capital city.

IRC—(see: Industrial Relations Commission).

IRCA—(see: Industrial Relations Court of Australia).

Irish curtains—cobwebs that gather in the corners of windows.

Irish luck—ridiculously good luck or fortune that seems against all odds.

Iron Age—any period of degeneracy or evil.

iron gangs—(hist.) there were two types of services that a convict entered. The position of service was dependent on the severity of the crime committed and the skills the convicted maintained. If the convict survived the journey, he was retained in either "government service" or "assigned as labor to a private land owner". If a convict was retained in government service, two positions could be chosen. The convicted could be entered in a "labor gang in which a variety of tasks on public works" were completed or the convicted could be placed in an "iron gang which is forced labor while wearing chains fastened to the ankles and waist". Government convicts were provided with accommodations by their employers and had to be housed by the government. Accommodations in these camps sometime consisted of "small shells on wheels in which twenty men slept". These quarters could be "moved elsewhere when the immediate job was finished". Both the labor gang and the iron gang were employed in areas known as "stockades," which were "surrounded by a high stacked fence" and usually "deep in the bush and guarded". The work accomplished by these "convict gangs" was substantial. These gangs did more than build roads in the 1840s, they "carried away the whole of the top of Pinchgut Island in Sydney Harbor and prepared the site on which Fort Denison was subsequently constructed".

iron lung—an Esky; portable ice-box.

iron maiden—a particularly difficult, strict, severe woman.

iron (oneself) out—get drunk, totally intoxicated.

Iron Range—contains the largest area of lowland rainforest remaining in Australia. The rainforest is predominantly on the eastern slopes of the northernmost end of the Great Dividing Range. The area has a diversity of vegetation types, from mangrove and melaleuca swamp and low-altitude heathland on the coastal side of the rainforest, to higher altitude wetlands, heathlands and woodlands. It is amongst the most diverse habitat in the country for ants, butterflies, ferns, orchids and palms—there are 200 species of butterfly at Iron Range, including 11 found nowhere else in Australia. In the 1930s, gold opened up the area and underground mining was carried out on a fairly large scale. During World War II the area was taken over by the Australian and American armies. An aerodrome was built and connected to a port by sealed road. Extensive fortifications were constructed and the area was connected to the Australian telephone system via a line 60 miles long to the peninsula's Overland Telegraph Line. Located on the Cape York Peninsula, Queensland.

Iron Range National Park—an important wildlife refuge and one of the important birding locations in Australia. The park also protects Australia’s largest remnant of lowland tropical rainforest. Tall, dense, rainforest grows across the broad floodplains; open forest, woodland and paperbark forest grow closer to the coast; sandy beaches and rocky headlands overlook the Coral Sea. The many rare birds of this region include the eclectus parrot, palm cockatoo, southern cassowary, fawn-breasted bowerbird, red-bellied pitta, red-cheeked parrots and green-backed honeyeaters. The green python and spotted cuscus are also found only here and in Papua New Guinea. Aboriginal people of the Kuu Ya’u language group occupied the area now designated as Iron Range National Park, until they were forced into missions. Their descendants living at the Lockhart River Community retain close ties with their land and cultural traditions. The park covers an area of around just 36,000ha at 543m above sea level, and is located between Lloyd and Weymuth Bay, along the eastern side of Cape York Peninsula, Queensland.

iron underpants—(of women) girdles; step-ins; figure-control underpants.

ironbark—1. Eucalyptus paniculate, a large, hardwood tree grown for commercial use. The timber is suited to heavy construction where high-stress grades are required, such as floor joists and beams. Also makes beautiful flooring, decking and panelling, and is resistant to Lyctid borer attack. 2. Eucalyptus sideroxylon, a heavy construction timber also used in honey production, essential oils, windbreaks and woodlots. Ornamental grows to 10m-30m with white, pink, red or yellow flowers. Will grow on poor, shallow, clayey soils, provided drainage is good. Frost and drought resistant. 3. dead bark that is persistent, usually hard, thick, widely and deeply furrowed, and impregnated with kino (a dark gum exudate that often impregnates the dead bark); any tree exhibiting these characteristics.

Irandji Syndrome—the inevitable result of a box jellyfish sting. Within an hour, victims experience severe lower back pain, shooting pains all over the body, cramping, nausea, vomiting, profuse sweating and coughing. Depending on the species, loss of motor control and paralysis could follow, with some victims eventually dying of brain haemorrhages or heart failure.

is it a goer?—1. is it going to proceed, happen, as planned? 2. does it work, operate, function?/p>

Isaacs, Sir Isaac Alfred—(6 August 1855—12 February, 1948) judge and politician and the ninth Governor-General of Australia—and the first Australian to occupy that post. Isaacs was born in Melbourne, the son of a Polish Jewish tailor who had arrived in Victoria from Britain the previous year. In 1876, while still working full-time, Isaac Isaacs started studying law part-time at the University of Melbourne. He graduated in 1880 and became a Master of Laws in 1883. In 1892 Isaacs was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as a radical liberal. In 1893 he became Solicitor-General, and in 1894 Attorney-General, a position he held until 1901. In 1897 he was elected to the Convention which drafted the Australian Constitution, where he supported those arguing for a more democratic draft. Isaacs was elected to the first federal Parliament in 1901, as a critical supporter of Edmund Barton and his protectionist government. He was one of a group of back-benchers pushing for more radical policies. Alfred Deakin appointed Isaacs Attorney-General in 1905 but he was a difficult colleague, and by 1906 Deakin was keen to get him out of politics by appointing him to the High Court bench. Here he joined H B Higgins as a radical minority on the Court, in opposition to the Chief Justice, Sir Samuel Griffith. He served on the Court for 24 years. In 1930 the Labor Prime Minister, James Scullin, appointed Isaacs, at the age of 75, as Chief Justice. Shortly afterwards, however, Scullin decided to appoint an Australian as Governor-General, and offered the post to Isaacs. This sparked a storm of protest from the Nationalist opposition and the conservative press. Critics of the appointment were careful to say that they had no opposition to Isaacs personally, and the fact that he was Jewish was never mentioned, but there is no doubt that currents of personal dislike of Isaacs and of anti-Semitism ran beneath the debate. Scullin had to travel to London to personally advise King George V to make the appointment, which the King reluctantly agreed to. With Australia in the depths of the Great Depression, Isaacs agreed to a reduction in salary, and conducted the office with great frugality. Isaacs was 81 when his term ended in 1936, but he remained active in various causes for another decade, and wrote frequently on matters of constitutional law.

issue paper—this term is in common use amongst not only government bodies, but organisations in general. The 'issue paper' is a formal document outlining an issue that is regarded to be of some importance to the organisation that has requested it. The focus may be the correction of a problem, or simply how to go about achieving an aim. The information contained within an issue paper can include statistics, surveys, criteria, etc. In short, the issue paper is a report on an 'issue' to be dealt with, relating pertinent information required for planning and decision-making.

it and a bit—perfect; exceptional (often in a sarcastic sense): e.g., He thinks he's it and a bit.

it's a goer—1. it is definitely going to proceed, happen. 2. it is in working order, operative, sound.

it's a long lane that has no turning—change is inevitable.

it's a take—this situation is a fraud, con, deception, swindle.

it's a worry—it's a problem/difficulty/something one doesn't like doing or is concerned about.

it's not the done thing—it is not the socially acceptable thing to do.

it's on the cards—it is likely to happen, probable.

it's sweet—it is satisfactory, all right, okay, acceptable.

it's the done thing—it is the socially acceptable thing to do.

it's times like these you need Minties!—an expression of exasperation, frustration.

it's your pigeon—it's your responsibility.

itchy palm—having a desire for money; greed; avarice.

Itie—an Italian person or thing.

IUCN—the World Conservation Union (formerly the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), an international body concerned with the conservation of natural environments. The IUCN advises the World Heritage Committee on the inscription of properties with natural values. Through its worldwide network of specialists, it reports on the state of conservation of World Heritage sites. The Australian Committee for IUCN administers the Australian Natural Heritage Charter. The IUCN categories are: vulnerable, a taxon classified as vulnerable under the proposed IUCN categories has a 10% probability of becoming extinct within 100 years; endangered, a taxon classified as endangered under the proposed IUCN categories has a 20% probability of extinction within 20 years or 10 generations, whichever is longer; icritical, a taxon classified as critical under the proposed IUCN categories has a 50% probability of becoming extinct within 5 years or two generations, whichever is longer.

Iwaidja—an Aboriginal people and language, still spoken by around 200 people but under increasing threat from English. The ancient tribal land of the Iwaidja people is in the wetlands among the mighty rivers of the Gurig National Park. The Iwaidja have retained the most important parts of their dreaming and even many aspects of their traditional food. Here on the northernmost tip of the Cobourg Peninsula at the very top of the Northern Territory, young boys still learn how to spear fish and hunt sea turtles and girls accompany women across the tidal flats to collect mud mussels, oysters and cockles. Children also learn to excavate prized ldungun (long yams) which are often two metres deep in the ground and grow in clumps up to 70cm long.

Iwaidjan language family—the languages of the Iwaidjan family are all spoken in the Cobourg Peninsula region of the Northern Territory. This region has an astonishing level of linguistic diversity. Representatives of a third of the approximately twenty-five high-level family groupings of Australian languages are, or were once, spoken in this small region, barely larger than Belgium.

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